ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0004.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: SMI (silicone mammary implants); FBR (foreign body response); wound healing; wound infection; capsular fibrosis; implant encapsulation; early-stage fibrosis; surface adsorption; immunomics; biomarkers
Online: 1 December 2022 (02:02:11 CET)
The etiology of exaggerated fibrous capsule formation around silicone mammary implants (SMI) is multifactorial but primarily induced by immune mechanisms toward the foreign material silicone. The aim of this work was to enlighten the disease progression from implant insertion and immediate tissue damage response reflected in (a) the acute wound proteome, and (b) the adsorption of chronic inflammatory wound proteins at implant surfaces. An intra-individual absolute quantitation TMT-liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry approach was applied to profile wound proteome formed around SMI the first five days post-implantation. Compared to plasma, the acute wound profile resembled a more complex composition comprising plasma-derived and locally differentially expressed proteins (DEPs). DEPs were subjected to functional enrichment analysis, which revealed the dysregulation of signaling pathways mainly involved in immediate inflammation response and ECM turnover. Moreover, we found time-course variations in protein enrichment immediately post-implantation and adsorbed to SMI surfaces after 6-8 months. Characterization of the expander-adhesive proteome by label-free approach uncovered a long-term adsorbed acute wound and the fibrosis-associated proteome. Our findings propose a wound biomarker panel for the early detection and diagnosis of excessive fibrosis that could potentially broaden insights into the characteristics of fibrotic implant encapsulation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0486.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC); EHEC-associated hemolytic uremic syndrome (eHUS); Shiga toxin 2a (Stx2a); trypsin; furin; chymotrypsin-like elastase 3B (CELA3B)
Online: 7 July 2023 (10:24:04 CEST)
Shiga toxins (Stxs), and more specifically the Stx2a subtype, are the major virulence factors involved in enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC)-associated hemolytic uremic syndrome (eHUS); a life-threatening disease causing acute kidney injury, especially in children. Cleavage of Stxs A subunit, when followed by reduction, boosts the enzymatic activity causing damage to targeted cells. This cleavage was assumed to be mostly mediated by furin during Stx intracellular trafficking. Cleavage of A subunit, without reduction, changes the binding properties of Stxs for blood components during HUS pathogenesis. To investigate whether the cleavage could occur in the intestine, even prior entering target cells, Stx2a structure was characterized after its exposure to specific host factors present in human stool. The structure of Stx2a A subunit was determined by immunoblotting after electrophoretic separation under reducing conditions. Trypsin and chymotrypsin-like elastase 3B (CELA3B), two serine proteases, were identified as potential candidates that may trigger the extracellular cleavage of Stx2a A subunit directly after its secretion by EHEC in the gut. Whether this observation indeed translates to natural infections and plays a role in eHUS pathogenesis has yet to be determined as well as whether host's protease profile could affect disease development by changing the toxin’s biological features.