ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0060.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: vaccination; acceptance; Covid-19; epidemiology; Cameroon; urban area; rural area
Online: 3 February 2023 (06:23:26 CET)
The Covid-19 pandemic has rapidly evolved in December 2019 and to prevent its spread, effective vaccines has been produced and made available to the population. Despite their availability so far in Cameroon, the vaccination coverage remains low. This study aimed at describing the epidemiology of the acceptance of vaccines against Covid-19 in some urban and rural areas of Cameroon. A cross-sectional, descriptive and analytical survey was conducted from March 2021 to August 2021 targeting unvaccinated individuals from urban and rural area. After getting appropriate administrative authorizations and an ethical clearance from the Institutional Review Board (or Ethics Committee) of Douala University (N° 3070CEI-Udo/05/2022/M), a cluster sampling at many degrees was performed and a language adapted questionnaire was filled by each consenting participant. Data were analyzed using Epi info version 18.104.22.168 software and for P-values ˂ 0.05, the difference was considered as statistically significant. Out of 1053 individuals, 58.02% (611/1053) participants were residing in urban and 41.98% (442/1053) in rural areas. Good knowledge relative to Covid-19 was significantly higher in urban areas as compared to rural areas (97.55%vs.85.07, P<0.000). The proportion of respondents who intended to accept the anti Covid-19 vaccine was significantly higher in urban areas than rural areas (42.55%vs.33.26, p=0.0047). Conversely, the proportion of anti Covid-19 reluctant respondents thinking that the vaccine can induce a disease was significantly higher in rural areas than urban areas (54 (35.07 vs 8.84, P<0.0001). The significant determinants of anti-COVID-19 acceptance were the level of education (p=0.0001) and profession in the rural areas (p=<0.0001), and only the profession (p=0.0046) in the urban areas. This study globally shows that anti-COVID-19 vaccination remains a major challenge in urban as well as rural area in Cameroon. We should keep sensitizing and educate population about vaccine importance in preventing the COVID-19 spread.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0455.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pharmacology And Toxicology Keywords: resistant bacteria; COVID-19 pandemic era; antibiotics
Online: 27 March 2023 (08:59:13 CEST)
Abstract: The overuse of antibiotic prophylaxis during the COVID-19 pandemic would have led to the devel-opment of antibiotic-resistant bacterial strains, thereby increasing the epidemiological burden of antimicrobi-al resistance. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and antibiotic resistance pattern of bacte-ria isolated in 02 referral health facilities in Yaoundé before and during the COVID-19 pandemic era. We conducted a retrospective study over a period of 03 years (from 1 January 2019 to 31 December 2021) in the bacteriology units of the Central and General Hospitals of Yaoundé, Cameroon. The review of the services' registers was done to record bacterial isolates (Streptococcus, Staphylococcus, Neisseria meningitidis and Entero-bacteriaceae) as well as their susceptibility to selected, specific and highly potent antibiotics: Cefixime, Azythromycin and Erythromycin. The relationship between each group of resistant bacteria and the antibiotic of interest was determined by simple linear regression; the comparison of the prevalences of before (2019) and during 2 consecutive years of the COVID-19 pandemic onset (2020 and 2021) was done by the Chi2 test of in-dependence. In all, 426 bacterial strains were included. It appeared that the highest number of bacteria iso-lates and lowest rate of bacterial resistance were recorded during the pre-COVID 2019 period in 2019 (160 isolates vs. 58.8% resistance rate). Conversely, lower bacteria stains but greater resistance burden were rec-orded during the pandemic era (2020 and 2021) with the lowest bacteria amount and peak of bacteria re-sistance registered in 2020, the year of COVID-19 onset (120 isolates vs. 70% resistance in 2020 and 146 iso-lates vs.58.9% resistance in 2021). In contrast to almost all others groups of bacteria where the resistance burden was quite constant over years, the Enterobacteriaceae exhibited greater resistance rate during the pandemic period [60%(48/80) in 2019 to 86.9%(60/69) in 2020 and 64.5%(61/95) in 2021)]. Concerning antibiotics, unlike Erythromycin, Azythromycin related resitance increased during the pandemic period and the resistance to Cefixim tends to decrease the year of the pandemic onset (2020) and re-increase one year therafter. A significant association was found between resistant Enterobacteriaceae strains and Cefixime (R= 0.7; P-value= 0.0001) and also, between resistant Staphylococcus strains and Erythromycin (R= 0.8; P-value= 0.0001). It could be that the more frequent use of these antibiotics has increased resistance rate especially in Enterobacteriaceae. Anticromicrobial resistance should be closely monitor during and after COVID pandemic era.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0426.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: Acinetobacter baumannii; Resistance; carbapenemases; Health Facilities
Online: 24 March 2023 (06:49:01 CET)
Carbapenems have long been considered as treatment of choice for Gram-Negative Bacteria (GNB) infections, and today the clinical utility of this class is threatened by the emergence and spread of resistance favored by its increasing use. According to the WHO, Acinetobacter baumannii, nosocomial infection agent, tops the list of priority antibiotic-resistant pathogens, considered to be the most risky for humans. This study sought to determine the prevalence of Acinetobacter baumannii strains producing carbapenemases in four health facilities in the Center and Littoral regions of Cameroon and the associated risk factors. An analytical cross-sectional study was conducted over a six-month period from January to June 2022. All Acinetobacter baumanii or suspected strains isolated from pathological samples at the bacteriology laboratory of different health facilities were systematically collected and underwent a re-identification. After successfully subculturing and growing on nutrient agar, re-identification and antimicrobial susceptibility Testing (AST) were performed using the VITEK 2 System and the Kirby-Bauer method according to the guidelines of the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI). Detection and phenotypic characterization of carbapenemases was performed according to adequate standard procedures. A total of 168/226 clinical isolates of Acinetobacter baumannii were confirmed after re-identification of which 52.69% came from male patients, and 55.09% from participants aged between 10-39 years old and 46.71% from pus samples. A very high resistance rates to all families of antibiotics was noted except to colistin (10.2%). About 40.12% of these strains produced carbapenemases with 62.69% of class B and 37.31% of class A. In addition, frequent hospitalisation was significantly associated to the production of carbapenemase among Acinetobacter baumanii (Ajusted-OR=16.53, P-value<0.0001). This study highlighted the emergence of carbapenemase-producing Acinetobacter baumannii which is increasingly growing. Continuous drug-resistant monitoring and preventive measures could help to prevent and curb the dissemination of A.baumanii resistance genes, especially in hospital settings.