REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0906.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: Respiratory viruses; Anosmia; Olfaction Disorders; loss of smell; COVID-19
Online: 12 May 2023 (08:49:10 CEST)
The novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) known as severe acute respiratory syndrome - coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has emerged in China in 2019, and caused an outbreak of unusual viral pneumonia. The olfactory dysfunction following the infection of different variants of SARS-CoV-2 is now accepted as a hallmark symptom in patients. Recent studies have pointed out the relationship between COVID-19 and altered or loss of smell in infected patients. This mini review provides an overview of the role of SARS-CoV-2 and the other acute respiratory viruses in the development the human olfactory pathophysiology. We highlight the importance of deciphering the molecular mechanisms underlying the olfactory dysfunction caused by SARS-CoV-2 to help design new drugs to restore the altered or loss of smell in affected patients.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0255.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: antimicrobial resistance; antimicrobial stewardship; One Health; agriculture; biosecurity
Online: 13 January 2023 (13:50:48 CET)
Antimicrobial resistance (AMR), the capacity of microbial pathogens to survive in the presence of antimicrobials, is considered one of the greatest threats to human health worldwide and is growing rapidly in importance. AMR is thought to be driven in part by the use of antimicrobials (AMU) in livestock production. AMU reduction in agriculture is therefore important, but doing so may endanger farmers’ incomes and hamper broader food security. Understanding drivers for farmers' antibiotics use is essential to designing interventions which avoid harming agricultural output and safeguard farmers’ economic security. In this study, we analyse AMUSE survey data from poultry farmers in Senegal to explore the effects of vaccination, attitudes towards AMR, and biosecurity practices on: AMU, animal mortality, and farm productivity. We found that farmers with more “AMR-aware” attitudes may be less likely to use antibiotics in healthy birds. Stronger on-farm biosecurity was associated with less use of antibiotics in healthy birds, and in some specifications was linked to higher broiler productivity. Vaccination and AMU were both linked with higher disease prevalence, and both factors appeared conducive to higher broiler productivity. Overall, there is evidence that awareness-raising and biosecurity improvements could encourage prudent use of antibiotics, and that biosecurity and vaccination could to some extent replace antibiotic use as productivity-enhancing and disease-management tools in broiler farms. Finally, issues of farm antimicrobial stewardship must be considered at the structural level, with farm behaviours contingent on interaction with state and private stakeholders.