ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201703.0039.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Inorganic & Nuclear Chemistry Keywords: alkanes; amides; hydrogen peroxide; dinuclear complexes; iron complexes; metallasiloxanes
Online: 7 March 2017 (09:23:03 CET)
Two types of heterometallic (Fe(III),Na) silsesquioxanes [Ph5Si5O10]2[Ph10Si10O21]Fe6(O2‒)2Na7(H3O+)(MeOH)2(MeCN)126.96.36.199(MeCN), I, and [Ph5Si5O10]2[Ph4Si4O8]2Fe6Na6(O2‒)3(MeCN)8.5(H2O)8.44, II, were obtained and characterized. X-Ray studies established distinctive structures of both products, with pair of Fe(III)-O-based triangles surrounded by siloxanolate ligands, giving fascinating cage architectures. Complex II proved to be catalytically active in the formation of amides from alcohols and amines, thus becoming a rare example of metallasilsesquioxanes performing homogeneous catalysis. Benzene, cyclohexane and other alkanes, as well as alcohols, can be oxidized in acetonitrile solution to phenol, the corresponding alkyl hydroperoxides and ketones, respectively, by hydrogen peroxide in air in the presence of catalytic amounts of complex II and trifluoroacetic acid. Thus, the cyclohexane oxidation at 20 °C gave oxygenates in very high for alkanes yield (48% based on alkane). The kinetic behaviour of the system indicates that the mechanism includes the formation of hydroxyl radicals generated from hydrogen peroxide in its interaction with diiron species. The latter are formed via monomerization of starting hexairon complex with further dimerization of the monomers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0256.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geochemistry & Petrology Keywords: n-alkanes, platinum, catalyst, soil, humic acid, Freetown Intrusion, Sierra Leone
Online: 26 January 2018 (16:11:36 CET)
Soil above a platinum-group element (PGE)-bearing horizon within the Freetown Layered Intrusion, Sierra Leone contains anomalous concentrations of n-alkanes (CnH2n+2) in the range C14 to C22 not readily attributable to an algal or lacustrine origin. Longer chain n-alkanes (C23 to C31) in the soil were derived from the breakdown of leaf litter beneath the closed canopy humid tropical forest. Spontaneous breakdown of the longer chain n-alkanes to form C14-22 n-alkanes without biogenic or abiogenic catalysts is unlikely as the n-alkanes are stable. In the Freetown soil, the catalytic properties of the PGE (Pt in particular) may lower the temperature at which oxidation of the longer chain n-alkanes can occur. Reaction between these n-alkanes and Pt species such as Pt2+(H2O)2(OH)2 and Pt4+(H2O)2(OH)4 can bend and twist the alkanes, and significantly lower the Heat of Formation. Acknowledging the possibility of microbial catalysis and the difficulty of identifying a direct organic geochemical source of the lighter n-alkanes, this paper explores the theoretical potential for abiogenic Pt species catalysis as a mechanism of breakdown of the longer n-alkanes to form C14-22 alkanes. This novel mechanism could substantiate the presence of the PGE in solution predicted by soil geochemistry and illustrate processes involving the PGE. Graphical Abstract
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: seston stoichiometry; source estimation; n-alkanes proxies; large eutrophic floodplain lakes; Lake Taihu
Online: 18 November 2019 (04:31:03 CET)
Although sources of seston are much more complicated in lakes compared to marines, the influences of different source on the spatiotemporal variations in seston stoichiometry are still underexplored, especially in large eutrophic floodplain lakes. Here, we investigated the seston stoichiometry across a typical large eutrophic floodplain lake (Lake Taihu) over one year. In addition, we used the n-alkanes proxies for source estimation which are more robust than other elemental indicators (e.g. C: N ratios). Throughout the study, the average value of C: N: P ratio of 143: 19: 1 across Lake Taihu was higher than the classical Redfield ratio, but closed to the synthesized data from other lakes. Generally, seston C: N ratios varied the least across all environments, but C: P and N: P ratios varied widely and shown a significant seasonal pattern with lower ratios of N: P and C: P during senescence seasons and higher ratios in the growing seasons. This seasonal change was mainly associated with the shift from terrestrial-derived seston to algal-derived seston as, the significant lower ratios of terrestrial-derived seston from surrounding agricultural watershed. Spatially, the mean ratios of each site were similar, except relative high values of C: P and N: P ratios in the algal dominated area. Statistically, the predictive power of environmental variables was strongly improved by adding n-alkanes proxies. However, apart from sources indicators, particulate phosphorus (PP) contents also partly explained the spatiotemporal variations in stoichiometric ratios. Nevertheless, the mechanisms behind the dynamics of PP could be totally different and source-specific. This study highlights the priority of using n-alkanes proxies as tools to identify the source of seston which is essential to interpret the spatiotemporal variations in seston stoichiometric ratios among eutrophic floodplain lakes.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0512.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: PhaC synthase; classification; dimerization; substrate binding; exit cavity; C3-C14 alkanes; polymer composition
Online: 26 July 2018 (12:03:44 CEST)
PHA synthases (PhaC) are grouped into four classes based on the kinetics and mechanisms of reaction. The grouping of PhaC enzymes into four classes is dependent on substrate specificity, according to the preference in forming short chain length (scl) or medium chain length (mcl) polymers: class I, class III, and class IV produce scl-PHAs depending on propionate, butyrate, valerate and hexanoate precursors, while class II phaC synthesize mcl-PHAs based on the alkane (C6 to C14) precursors. PHA synthases of class I, in particular PhaCCs from Chromobacterium USM2 and PhaCCn/RePhaC1 from Cupriavidus necator/R. eutropha, have been analysed and the crystal structures of the C-domains have been determined. PhaCCn/RePhaC1 was also studied by small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) analysis. Models have been proposed for dimerization, catalysis mechanism, substrate recognition and affinity, product formation and product egress route. The assays based on amino acid substitution by mutagenesis have been useful to validate the hypothesis on the role of amino acids in catalysis and in accommodation of bulky substrates, for the synthesis of PHB co-polymers and medium chain length-PHA polymers with optimized chemical properties.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0344.v1
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: Phytoremediation; Petroleum hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria; Salix; Eleocharis; Alkanes; Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons; Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria
Online: 15 July 2021 (09:27:25 CEST)
Phytoremediation, a method of phytomanagement using the plant holobiont to clean up polluted soils, is particularly effective for degrading organic pollutants, such as alkanes and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHS). However, the respective contributions of host plants and their associated microbiota within the holobiont to the efficiency of phytoremediation is poorly understood. Identification of plant-associated bacteria capable of efficiently utilizing these compounds as carbon source while stimulating plant-growth, is a keystone for phytomanagement engineering in order to improve the efficiency of pollutant removal. In this study, we sampled the rhizosphere and the surrounding bulk soil of Salix purpurea and Eleocharis obusta from the site of a former petrochemical plant in Varennes, QC, Canada. Our objectives were to: (i) isolate and identify indigenous bacteria inhabiting these biotopes; (ii) assess the ability of isolated bacteria to utilize alkanes (dodecane and hexadecane) and PAHs (naphthalene, phenanthrene and pyrene) as the sole carbon source, and (iii) determine the plant growth-promoting (PGP) potential of the isolates using five key traits. A total of 438 morphologically different bacterial isolates were obtained, purified, preserved and identified through PCR and 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Identified isolates represent 62 genera, including taxa such as Acinetobacter, Arthrobacter, Bacillus, Enterobacter, Nocardia, Pseudomonas, Rhodococcus, Streptomyces and Variovorax. Approximately, 32% of bacterial isolates, including Arthrobacter, Pseudomonas, Streptomyces, Enterobacter, Nocardia, Acinetobacter and Microbacterium, were able to utilize all five different hydrocarbons compounds. Additionally, 5% of tested isolates belonging to genera Pseudomonas, Acinetobacter, Serratia, Klebsiella, Microbacterium, Bacillus and Stenotrophomonas possessed all five of the tested PGP functional traits. This culture collection of diverse, petroleum-hydrocarbon degrading bacteria, with multiple PGP traits, represents a valuable resource for future use in environmental bio- and phyto-technology applications, including phytoremediation of petroleum hydrocarbons contaminated soils and phytomanagement of anthropized areas.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0124.v1
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: rhizoremediation; plant growth promoting rhizobacteria; petroleum hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria; salix; contaminated soils; alkanes; polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons
Online: 4 August 2021 (22:30:31 CEST)
Soil contamination with petroleum hydrocarbons (PHCs) has become a global concern in the word due to intensification of industrial activities. This creates a serious environmental issue, therefore there is a need to find solutions, including application of efficient remediation technologies, or to improve current techniques. Rhizoremediation is a sub-category of the phytoremediation which refers to Phytomanagement that uses plants and their associated microbiota. These green technologies have received a global attention as a cost-effective and possible efficient remediation technique that can be applied to cleanup PHCs-polluted soils. The mechanism of rhizoremediation process is that plant roots stimulate soil microbes to mineralize organic contaminants to H2O and CO2. However, this multipartite interaction is much complex because many biotic and abiotic factors can influence microbial processes in the soil, making the efficiency of rhizoremediation unpredictable. This review reports the progress made on rhizoremediation approaches that can overcome the limitations and improve the efficiency of PHCs-contaminated soils. The addressed approaches in this review include: 1) selecting plants with desired characteristics suitable for rhizoremediation, 2) the exploitation and manipulation of plant microbiome by using inoculant containing plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) or hydrocarbon-degrading microbes, or a combination of both types of organisms, and 3) enhancement of the understanding of how host-plant assembles a beneficial microbiome, and how it functions, under pollutant stress.