ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0070.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Information Technology & Data Management Keywords: Online social networks (OSNs); Deep Learning; cyberbullying; Twitter
Online: 5 October 2021 (08:27:41 CEST)
Online social networks (OSNs) play an integral role in facilitating social interaction; however, these social networks increase antisocial behavior, such as cyberbullying, hate speech, and trolling. Aggression or hate speech that takes place through short message service (SMS) or the Internet (e.g., in social media platforms) is known as cyberbullying. Therefore, automatic detection utilizing natural language processing (NLP) is a necessary first step that helps prevent cyberbullying. This research proposes an automatic cyberbullying method to detect aggressive behavior using a consolidated deep learning model. This technique utilizes multichannel deep learning based on three models, namely, the bidirectional gated recurrent unit (BiGRU), transformer block, and convolutional neural network (CNN), to classify Twitter comments into two categories: aggressive and not aggressive. Three well-known hate speech datasets were combined to evaluate the performance of the proposed method. The proposed method achieved promising results. The accuracy of the proposed method was approximately 88%.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0413.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: Cloud Client (CC); Cloud computing; Cloud Service Provider (CSP); Security; Service Level Agreement (SLA); Privacy-Preserving Model (PPM); Third-party auditor (TPA)
Online: 23 September 2021 (15:55:08 CEST)
Cloud computing has become a prominent technology due to its important utility service; this service concentrates on outsourcing data to organizations and individual consumers. Cloud computing has considerably changed the manner in which individuals or organizations store, retrieve, and organize their personal information. Despite the manifest development in cloud computing, there are still some concerns regarding the level of security and issues related to adopting cloud computing that prevent users from fully trusting this useful technology. Hence, for the sake of reinforcing the trust between Cloud Clients (CC) and Cloud Service Providers (CSP), as well as safeguarding the CC’s data in the cloud, several security paradigms of cloud computing based on a Third-Party Auditor (TPA) have been introduced. The TPA, as a trusted party, is responsible for checking the integrity of the CC’s data and all the critical information associated with it. However, the TPA could become an adversary and could aim to deteriorate the privacy of the CC’s data by playing a malicious role. In this paper, we present the state-of-art of cloud computing’s privacy-preserving models (PPM) based on a TPA. Three TPA factors of paramount significance have been discussed: TPA involvement, security requirements, and security threats caused by vulnerabilities. Moreover, TPA’s privacy preserving models have been comprehensively analyzed and categorized into different classes with an emphasis on their dynamicity. Finally, we discuss the limitations of the models and present our recommendations for their improvement.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0068.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: Data security; data handling; access control; unauthorized access; cloud computing
Online: 6 December 2021 (12:15:56 CET)
Nowadays, cloud computing is one of the important and rapidly growing paradigms that extend its capabilities and applications in various areas of life. The cloud computing system challenges many security issues, such as scalability, integrity, confidentiality, and unauthorized access, etc. An illegitimate intruder may gain access to the sensitive cloud computing system and use the data for inappropriate purposes that may lead to losses in business or system damage. This paper proposes a hybrid unauthorized data handling (HUDH) scheme for Big data in cloud computing. The HUDU aims to restrict illegitimate users from accessing the cloud and data security provision. The proposed HUDH consists of three steps: data encryption, data access, and intrusion detection. HUDH involves three algorithms; Advanced Encryption Standards (AES) for encryption, Attribute-Based Access Control (ABAC) for data access control, and Hybrid Intrusion Detection (HID) for unauthorized access detection. The proposed scheme is implemented using Python and Java language. Testing results demonstrate that the HUDH can delegate computation overhead to powerful cloud servers. User confidentiality, access privilege, and user secret key accountability can be attained with more than 97% high accuracy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0165.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: Dark Net; Dark Web; COVID-19; data collection
Online: 11 October 2021 (14:19:46 CEST)
The Dark Web is known as a place triggering a variety of criminal activities. Anonymization techniques enable illegal operations, leading to the loss of confidential information and its further use as bait, a trade product or even a crime tool. Despite technical progress, there is still not enough awareness of the Dark Web and its secret activity. In this study, we introduced the Dark Web Enhanced Analysis (DWEA), in order to analyze and gather information about the content accessed on the Dark Net based on data characteristics. The research was performed to identify how the Dark Web has been influenced by recent global events, such as the COVID-19 epidemic. The research included the usage of a crawler, which scans the network and collects data for further analysis with machine learning. The result of this work determines the influence of the COVID-19 epidemic on the Dark Net.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0172.v1
Online: 7 June 2021 (12:39:50 CEST)
Currently, life cannot be imagined without the use of bank cards for purchases or money transfers; however, their use provides new opportunities for money launders and terrorist organizations. This paper proposes a Blockchain-enabled transaction scanning (BTS) method for the detection of anomalous actions. The BTS method specifies the rules for outlier detection and rapid movements of funds, which restrict anomalous actions in transactions. The specified rules determine the specific patterns of malicious activities in the transactions. Furthermore, the rules of the BTS method scan the transaction history and provide a list of entities that receive money suspiciously. Finally, the Blockchain-enabled process is used to restrict the money laundering. To validate the performance of the proposed BTS, the Spring Boot application is built based on the Java programming language. Based on experimental results, the proposed BTS method automates the process of investigating transactions and restricts the money laundering incident.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0440.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control & Systems Engineering Keywords: time series; NMP algorithm; anomalies; data mining; similarities in time series; clustering
Online: 23 November 2021 (17:51:42 CET)
Time series data are significant and are derived from temporal data, which involve real numbers representing values collected regularly over time. Time series have a great impact on many types of data. However, time series have anomalies. We introduce hybrid algorithm named novel matrix profile (NMP) to solve the all-pairs similarity search problem for time series data. The proposed NMP inherits the features from two state-of-the art algorithms: similarity time-series automatic multivariate prediction (STAMP), and short text online microblogging protocol (STOMP). The proposed algorithm caches the output in an easy-to-access fashion for single- and multidimensional data. The proposed NMP algorithm can be used on large data sets and generates approximate solutions of high quality in a reasonable time. The proposed NMP can also handle several data mining tasks. It is implemented on a Python platform. To determine its effectiveness, it is compared with the state-of-the-art matrix profile algorithms i.e., STAMP and STOMP. The results confirm that the proposed NMP provides higher accuracy than the compared algorithms.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0120.v1
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: Information security; Cybercrime; cyber awareness; cybersecurity basics; cybersecurity hygiene; Blockchain technology
Online: 5 July 2021 (16:34:35 CEST)
The ignorance of or lack of knowledge about cybersecurity aspects causes a critical problem regarding confidentiality and privacy. This security problem will continue to exist even if the user possesses less expertise in information security. The modern IT technologies are well developed, and almost everyone uses the features of IT technologies and services within the Internet. However, people are being affected due to cybersecurity threats. People can adhere to the recommended cybersecurity guidelines, rules, adopted standards, and cybercrime preventive measures. However, it is not possible to entirely avoid cybercrimes. Cybercrimes often lead to sufficient business losses and spread forbidden themes (hatred, terrorism, child porn, etc.). Therefore, to reduce the risk of cybercrimes, a web-based Blockchain-enabled cybersecurity awareness program (WBCA) process is introduced in this paper. The proposed web-based cybersecurity awareness program trains users to improve their security skills. The proposed program helps with understanding the common behaviors of cybercriminals and improves user knowledge of cybersecurity hygiene, best cybersecurity practices, modern cybersecurity vulnerabilities, and trends. Furthermore, the proposed WBCA uses the Blockchain technology to protect the model from the potential threats. The proposed model is validated and tested using real-world cybersecurity topics with real users and cybersecurity experts. We anticipate that the proposed program can be extended to other domains, such as national or corporate courses, to increase the cybersecurity awareness level of users.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0185.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: drone detection; YOLOv5; unmanned aerial vehicle; deep learning
Online: 15 February 2022 (09:32:42 CET)
Recently, the use of drones/unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) has notably increased due to their broad commercial spread and low cost. The wide diffusion of drones increases the hazards of their misuse in illegitimate actions such as drug smuggling and terrorism. Thus, the surveillance and automated detection of drones are crucial for safeguarding restricted regions or special zones from illegal drone interventions. One of the most challenging issues in drone detection in surveillance videos is the apparent similarity of drones and birds against complex backgrounds. In this work, an automated image-based drone-detection system utilizing an advanced deep-learning-based object-detection method known as you only look once (YOLOv5) is introduced for protecting restricted regions or special zones from unlawful drone interventions. Due to the lack of sufficient data, transfer learning was utilized to pretrain the object-detection method to increase the performance. The experiments showed outstanding results, and an average precision of 94.7% was accomplished.