Preprint Article Version 3 Preserved in Portico This version is not peer-reviewed

Annual Solar Geoengineering: Mitigating Yearly Global Warming Increases

Version 1 : Received: 22 July 2023 / Approved: 24 July 2023 / Online: 24 July 2023 (09:31:35 CEST)
Version 2 : Received: 15 September 2023 / Approved: 15 September 2023 / Online: 15 September 2023 (13:00:42 CEST)
Version 3 : Received: 18 September 2023 / Approved: 19 September 2023 / Online: 21 September 2023 (09:45:43 CEST)

A peer-reviewed article of this Preprint also exists.

Feinberg, A. Annual Solar Geoengineering: Mitigating Yearly Global Warming Increases. Climate 2024, 12, 26, doi:10.3390/cli12020026. Feinberg, A. Annual Solar Geoengineering: Mitigating Yearly Global Warming Increases. Climate 2024, 12, 26, doi:10.3390/cli12020026.


Solar geoengineering (SG) solutions have many advantages compared to the difficulty of carbon removal (CR): SG produces fast results, is shown here to have much higher efficiency than CR, is not related to fossil fuel legislation, and is something we all can participate in brightening the Earth with cool roofs, and roads. SG requirements detailed previously to mitigate global warming (GW) have been concerning primarily because of overwhelming goals and climate circulation issues. In this paper, the advantages of annual solar geoengineering (ASG) to mitigate yearly global warming increases are explored and detailed as it provides higher feasibility in geoengineering applications. ASG area modification requirements found here are generally 50 to possibly higher than 150 times less compared to the challenge of full SG GW mitigation reducing circulation concerns. Results indicate that there are mixed technologies that can help meet annual mitigation Earth brightening goals. As well, results show much higher feasibility for L1 space shading compared to prior literature estimates for full GW mitigation. However, stratosphere injections appear challenging in the annual approach. Because ASG earth brightening area requirements are much smaller than those required for full mitigation, we have concerns that worldwide negative SG would interfere with making positive advances for several reasons. Negative SG currently dominates yearly practices with the application of dark asphalt roads and roofs. This issue is discussed.


solar geoengineering; space mirrors; earth mirrors; desert modification; space clusters; stratosphere injection


Environmental and Earth Sciences, Environmental Science

Comments (1)

Comment 1
Received: 21 September 2023
Commenter: Alec Feinberg
Commenter's Conflict of Interests: Author
Comment: Improved solar geoengineering allocation by country wealth. Minor corrections as well.
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