Yahalom, A. Essay Written for the Gravity Research Foundation 2023 Awards for Essays on Gravitation The Virial Theorem for Retarded Gravity. International Journal of Modern Physics D 2023, doi:10.1142/s0218271823420130.
Yahalom, A. Essay Written for the Gravity Research Foundation 2023 Awards for Essays on Gravitation The Virial Theorem for Retarded Gravity. International Journal of Modern Physics D 2023, doi:10.1142/s0218271823420130.

Yahalom, A. Essay Written for the Gravity Research Foundation 2023 Awards for Essays on Gravitation The Virial Theorem for Retarded Gravity. International Journal of Modern Physics D 2023, doi:10.1142/s0218271823420130.
Yahalom, A. Essay Written for the Gravity Research Foundation 2023 Awards for Essays on Gravitation The Virial Theorem for Retarded Gravity. International Journal of Modern Physics D 2023, doi:10.1142/s0218271823420130.

Abstract

The general theory of relativity (GR) is symmetric under smooth coordinate transformations also known as diffeomorphisms. The general coordinate transformation group has a linear subgroup denoted the Lorentz group of symmetry which is maintained also in the weak field approximation to GR. The dominant operator in the weak field equation of GR is thus the d'Alembert (wave) operator which has a retarded potential solution. Galaxy Clusters are huge physical systems having dimensions of many hundreds of millions of light years. Thus any change at the cluster center will be noticed at the rim only hundreds of millions of years later. Those retardation effects are neglected in present day cluster modelling and in particular are neglected in virial calculations used to relate mass and velocities on the cluster. The significant differences between the predictions of Newtonian instantaneous action at a distance and observed velocities are usually explained by either assuming dark matter or by modifying the laws of gravity (MOND). In this paper we will show that taking general relativity seriously without neglecting retardation effects one can explain the velocities in a galactic cluster without postulating dark matter. It should be stressed that the current approach does not require that velocities, $v$ are high, in fact the vast majority of cluster bodies are substantially subluminal. In other words, the ratio of $\frac{v}{c} \ll 1$. Typical velocities in galaxies are less than ~1000 km/s, which makes this ratio $0.01$ or smaller. However, one should consider the fact that every gravitational system even if it is made of subluminal bodies has a retardation distance, beyond which the retardation effect cannot be neglected. Every natural system such as stars and galaxies and even galactic clusters exchange mass with its environment. For example, the sun losses mass through the solar wind and galaxies accrete gas from the intergalactic medium. This means that all natural gravitational systems have a finite retardation distance. The question is thus quantitative, how large is the retardation distance? The change of mass of the sun is quite small and thus the retardation distance of the solar system is quite large allowing us to neglect retardation effects within the solar system. However, for galaxies and galaxy clusters the retardation distance is within the system itself and cannot be neglected.

Keywords

General Relativity; Retardation; Coma cluster; virial theorem

Subject

Physical Sciences, Astronomy and Astrophysics

Copyright:
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