Preprint Article Version 1 Preserved in Portico This version is not peer-reviewed

Abstract Entity Patterns for Sensors and Actuators

Version 1 : Received: 16 March 2023 / Approved: 20 March 2023 / Online: 20 March 2023 (02:12:35 CET)

A peer-reviewed article of this Preprint also exists.

Thapa, B.; Fernandez, E.B.; Cardei, I.; Larrondo-Petrie, M.M. Abstract Entity Patterns for Sensors and Actuators. Computers 2023, 12, 93. Thapa, B.; Fernandez, E.B.; Cardei, I.; Larrondo-Petrie, M.M. Abstract Entity Patterns for Sensors and Actuators. Computers 2023, 12, 93.


Sensors and actuators are fundamental units in Cyber-Physical and Internet of Things systems. Because they are included in a variety of systems, using many technologies, it is very useful to characterize their functions abstractly by describing them as Abstract Entity Patterns (AEPs), that are patterns that describe abstract conceptual entities. For concreteness, we study them here in the context of autonomous cars. An autonomous car is a complex system because, in ad-dition to its own complex design, it interacts with other vehicles and with the surrounding in-frastructure. To handle these functions, it must incorporate various technologies from different sources. An autonomous car is an example of a Cyber-Physical System, where some of its func-tions are performed by Internet of Things units. Sensors are extensively used in autonomous cars to measure physical quantities; actuators are commanded by controllers to perform appro-priate physical actions. From AEPs we can derive concrete patterns, a structure combining re-lated AEPs is an Entity Solution Frame (ESF). Both sensors and actuators are susceptible to mali-cious attacks due to the large attack surface of the system where they are used. Our work is in-tended to make autonomous cars more secure, which also increases their safety. Our final objec-tive is to build a Security Solution Frame for sensors and actuators of autonomous cars that will facilitate their secure design. A Security Solution Frame is a solution structure that groups to-gether and organizes related security patterns. This article is the first stage of a secure unit that can be used to design not only secure autonomous cars but also any system where sensors and actuators are used. This paper concentrates on AEPs and ESFs for sensors and actuators; that is, on the functional aspects of these devices.


Cyber-physical system; Internet of things; Security pattern; Security solution frame


Engineering, Chemical Engineering

Comments (0)

We encourage comments and feedback from a broad range of readers. See criteria for comments and our Diversity statement.

Leave a public comment
Send a private comment to the author(s)
* All users must log in before leaving a comment
Views 0
Downloads 0
Comments 0
Metrics 0

Notify me about updates to this article or when a peer-reviewed version is published.
We use cookies on our website to ensure you get the best experience.
Read more about our cookies here.