Preprint Review Version 1 Preserved in Portico This version is not peer-reviewed

Maximizing a Farm Yield Through Precision Agriculture utilizing Fourth Industrial Revolution (4IR) Tools and Space Technology

Version 1 : Received: 18 February 2023 / Approved: 3 March 2023 / Online: 3 March 2023 (09:28:23 CET)

A peer-reviewed article of this Preprint also exists.

Ngongoma, M.S.P.; Kabeya, M.; Moloi, K. A Review of Plant Disease Detection Systems for Farming Applications. Appl. Sci. 2023, 13, 5982. Ngongoma, M.S.P.; Kabeya, M.; Moloi, K. A Review of Plant Disease Detection Systems for Farming Applications. Appl. Sci. 2023, 13, 5982.


The globe and more particularly the economically developed regions of the world are currently in the era of the fourth Industrial revolution (4IR). Conversely; the economically developing regions in the world and more particularly the African continent have not yet even fully passed through the Third Industrial Revolution (3IR) wave and its economy is still heavily dependent on the agricultural field. On the other hand, the state of global food insecurity is worsening on an annual basis thanks to the exponential growth of the global human population which continuously heightens the food demand in both quantity and quality. This justifies the significance of the focus on digitizing agricultural practices to improve the farm yield to meet up with the steep food demand and stabilize the economy of the African continent and countries like India whose economy is mainly dependent on Agriculture. The tools we have at our disposal to utilize in the digitization of farming practices include space technology and Global Navigation and Satellite System (GNSS) in particular, Machine learning (ML), precision agriculture and communication systems such as the Internet of Things (IoT) and Information And Communication Technologies (ICT). The most pressing challenges in the farming field include the monitoring of diseases, pests, weeds and nutrient deficiencies in the crops as early detection translates to swift and timely correction actions and hence more yield at the end of a farming cycle. Vast opportunities in the field of precision agriculture still exist that can amount to further research studies such as the lack of real-time monitoring and real-time corrective action focus.


Fourth Industrial Revolution (4IR); Machine Learning (ML); Precision Agriculture; Space Vector Machine (SVM); Artificial Neural Network (ANN); k-Nearest Neighbour (k-NN); Fuzzy Classification; Global Navigation and Satellite System (GNSS)


Computer Science and Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence and Machine Learning

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