Conventional diagnostic techniques are based on utilization of analyte sampling, sensing and signalling on separate platforms for detection purposes, that must be evaded and integrated to a single step procedure in point of care (POC) testing devices. Therefore, the trend has been shifted towards utilization of microfluidic platforms for detection of analytes in biochemical, clinical and food technology due to its being expeditious. Microfluidic systems moulded with polymer substances or glass offer specific and sensitive detection of infectious and non-infectious diseases by providing innumerable benefits including less cost, good biological affinity, strong capillary action and simple process of fabrication. In the case of nucleic acid-based nanosensors, there are some challenges that need to be addressed such as cellular lysis, isolation and amplification of nucleic acid required to be accomplished prior to its detection. To avoid utilization of laborious steps for executing these steps, advances have been deployed in this perspective for on-chip sample preparation, amplification and detection which not only improves sensitivity and selectivity but also saves time and resources. This review emphasizes the significance of microfluidic technology for nucleic acid detection of infectious and non-infectious diseases. The implementation of isothermal amplification in concomitance with lateral flow assay greatly increases the binding efficiency of nanoparticles and biomolecules, improves limit of detection and sensitivity. Most importantly deployment of paper-based material made of cellulose reduces the overall cost. Microfluidic technology in nucleic acid testing has been discussed by explicating its applications in different fields. This review concludes with the prospects and proposes future directions in microfluidic based methods in disease diagnosis.
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