Preprint Article Version 1 Preserved in Portico This version is not peer-reviewed

The Principle "Like Begets Like" in Molecular and Algebraic-Matrix Genetics

Version 1 : Received: 27 November 2022 / Approved: 29 November 2022 / Online: 29 November 2022 (03:17:32 CET)
Version 2 : Received: 19 December 2022 / Approved: 20 December 2022 / Online: 20 December 2022 (01:29:16 CET)
Version 3 : Received: 23 May 2023 / Approved: 25 May 2023 / Online: 25 May 2023 (07:56:14 CEST)

How to cite: Petoukhov, S. The Principle "Like Begets Like" in Molecular and Algebraic-Matrix Genetics. Preprints 2022, 2022110528. Petoukhov, S. The Principle "Like Begets Like" in Molecular and Algebraic-Matrix Genetics. Preprints 2022, 2022110528.


This article is devoted to results of in-depth analysis of the system of binary-oppositional structures in DNA n-plet alphabets and their algebraic-matrix representations. These results show that the molecular complementary replication of DNA strands is accompanied by the presence of an algebraic version of the principle "like begets like" in matrix representations of DNA alphabets having internal structures. This algebraic version is based on binary-oppositional structures in the genetic molecular system, which can be represented by bynary numbers and corresponding matrices of DNA alphabets. The received results allow thinking that the phenomenon "like begets like" (or a complementary replication in a wide sense) is a systemic in the genetic organization and is connected with algebraic features of biological organization. Correspondingly, the biological principle "like begets like" can be additionally modeled by algebraic-matrix methods and approaches. Such algebraic-matrix modeling of the genetic coding system gives new ways for studying and understanding a key role of the named principle in genetic and other inherited physiological complexes. The author believes that further study of the algebraic relationships of the genetic system and inherited physiological complexes will be increasingly revealing the key biological role of the ancient principle "like begets like" at different levels of biological organization.


DNA strands, complementary replication, DNA alphabets, binary opposition, binary numbers, dyadic groups, matrices, algebras, split-quaternions.


Biology and Life Sciences, Biochemistry and Molecular Biology

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