# Absolute Time, Length Expansion, Particle Mass Origins, Quantum Entanglement, Pauli Exclusion Principle and Higgs Boson on the 4-D Euclidean Space

How to cite:
Hwang, J.-K. Absolute Time, Length Expansion, Particle Mass Origins, Quantum Entanglement, Pauli Exclusion Principle and Higgs Boson on the 4-D Euclidean Space. *Preprints* **2022**, 2022100203. https://doi.org/10.20944/preprints202210.0203.v1
Hwang, J.-K. Absolute Time, Length Expansion, Particle Mass Origins, Quantum Entanglement, Pauli Exclusion Principle and Higgs Boson on the 4-D Euclidean Space. Preprints 2022, 2022100203. https://doi.org/10.20944/preprints202210.0203.v1

## Abstract

_{1}x

_{2}x

_{3}quantized photon space which follows the absolute time simultaneity when the universe moves along the absolute time axis of ct. The length expansion of Dx = gDx

_{0}is derived under the condition of the absolute time (ct) simultaneity. From the similarity between this length expansion of Dx = gDx

_{0}and the energy increasing of E = gE

_{0}, it is assumed that the energy is proportional to the particle size of Dx. The extension of this assumption to the 4-D Euclidean space gives the new definition that the particle energy (E) is the 4-D volume. Then, the particle mass energy is defined as E= mc

^{2}= cDtDV = gE

_{0}. The masses of the elementary particles are originated from the 4-D warped volume of the photon space because the particle is the warped photon space with the velocity of v < c. Therefore, the Higgs boson concept in the standard model (SM) is not needed in the present 3-D quantized space model (TQSM). The scalar boson with the spin of zero, photon with the spin of 1 and graviton with the spin of 2 are the two-boson states. Therefore, the observed Higgs boson is reinterpreted as the two-boson state of the scalar boson with the spin of zero. The cosmic muon observation and twin paradox are explained by using the absolute time and relative time. The relative time is the observed time in the twin paradox and cosmic muon observation. In the twin paradox, a person who travels the long distance is more aged than a person on the earth in terms of the relative time ages because of the space and time conversion effect (STCE effect) of the moving space distance (x). But twins are in the same ages in terms of the absolute time without STCE effect. The fast-moving cosmic muon has the expanded half-life from the time expansion of the relative time. Also, the quantum entanglement and Pauli exclusion principle are explained. The quantum base of the photon space line connects two entangled particles. Two particles and quantum base system is fluctuated along the absolute time axis by the time clicking when one particle is measured. Another particle is instantly selected by the time clicking. This is called as the quantum entanglement. The photons which are the flat photon space with the constant speed of c along the space axis and absolute time axis have the 4-D photon velocity of c

_{eff}= 2

^{0.5}c. Total 10-D Euclidean space including three 3-D quantized spaces and one absolute time axis is required for the electric charges (EC), lepton charges (CC) and color charges (CC) of the elementary particles. The 3-D photon space is very stiff along the absolute time (ct) axis and very soft along the space axes. The Coulomb force through the photons (2EM waves) of the space fluctuations is much stronger than the Gravitational force through the gravitons (G waves) of the time fluctuations between two electrons.

## Keywords

## Subject

Copyright: This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

## Comments (0)

We encourage comments and feedback from a broad range of readers. See criteria for comments and our Diversity statement.

Leave a public commentSend a private comment to the author(s)