Preprint Article Version 1 Preserved in Portico This version is not peer-reviewed

Tracing Superior and Late-Leafing Genotypes in their Origin Center for Managing Late-Spring Frost in Walnut Orchards

Version 1 : Received: 19 September 2022 / Approved: 22 September 2022 / Online: 22 September 2022 (08:47:22 CEST)

How to cite: Fallah, M.; Rasouli, M.; Hassani, D.; Lawson, S.S.; Sarikhani, S.; Vahdati, K. Tracing Superior and Late-Leafing Genotypes in their Origin Center for Managing Late-Spring Frost in Walnut Orchards. Preprints 2022, 2022090336 (doi: 10.20944/preprints202209.0336.v1). Fallah, M.; Rasouli, M.; Hassani, D.; Lawson, S.S.; Sarikhani, S.; Vahdati, K. Tracing Superior and Late-Leafing Genotypes in their Origin Center for Managing Late-Spring Frost in Walnut Orchards. Preprints 2022, 2022090336 (doi: 10.20944/preprints202209.0336.v1).

Abstract

Evaluating genetic diversity in walnut (Juglans regia L.) populations is a rapid approach used by walnut breeding programs to distinguish superior genotypes. The present study identified the Hamedan province walnut population as one of the richest, most genetically diverse regions in Iran during 2019-2020. After initial screening, 47 genotypes were selected for further evaluation of pomological and phenological traits based on International Plant Genetic Resources Institute (IPGRI) descriptors. Nut and kernel weights among the selected genotypes ranged between 7.15-21.05 g and 3.0-10.8 g, respectively. Principal component analysis (PCA) categorized genotypes into three distinct groups while cluster analysis (CA) further categorized genotypes into one of four groups. Spearman correlation analysis showed a positive correlation (P <0.01) between nut weight (NWT), nut size, and kernel weight (KW) while a negative correlation (P <0.01) between shell thickness (STH) and packing tissue thickness (PTT) with kernel percentage (KP) was observed. Lastly, 10 of 47 genotypes (TAL8, TAL9, TAL10, TAL14, TAL19, TAL22, TB2, TB4, TB6, and RDGH5) were considered superior. Superior genotypes were late-leafing (25-40 days after the standard) and displayed a lateral bearing (LB) habit with heavy nuts (12.52–16.82 g) and kernels (6.53–8.15 g), thin-shells (1.06–1.25 mm), and lightly-colored kernels. Cuttings of superior genotypes were then grafted in the orchard. Detecting superior and late-leafing genotypes in this investigation suggests cultivars resistant to late-spring frost may soon be isolated.

Keywords

Walnut diversity; germplasm evaluation; late-leafing; pomological characteristics; superior geno-types

Subject

BIOLOGY, Horticulture

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