Preprint Article Version 1 Preserved in Portico This version is not peer-reviewed

Alterations of the Antioxidant and Inflammatory Response of the Peripheral Blood Granulocytes to SARS-CoV-2 Infection in the Deceased COVID-19 Patients

Version 1 : Received: 19 September 2022 / Approved: 20 September 2022 / Online: 20 September 2022 (09:24:19 CEST)

How to cite: Zarkovic, N.; Biernacki, M.; Wójcik, P.; Jarocka-Karpowicz, I.; Orehovec, B.; Baršić, B.; Tarle, M.; Kmet, M.; Lukšić, I.; Skrzydlewska, E. Alterations of the Antioxidant and Inflammatory Response of the Peripheral Blood Granulocytes to SARS-CoV-2 Infection in the Deceased COVID-19 Patients. Preprints 2022, 2022090298 (doi: 10.20944/preprints202209.0298.v1). Zarkovic, N.; Biernacki, M.; Wójcik, P.; Jarocka-Karpowicz, I.; Orehovec, B.; Baršić, B.; Tarle, M.; Kmet, M.; Lukšić, I.; Skrzydlewska, E. Alterations of the Antioxidant and Inflammatory Response of the Peripheral Blood Granulocytes to SARS-CoV-2 Infection in the Deceased COVID-19 Patients. Preprints 2022, 2022090298 (doi: 10.20944/preprints202209.0298.v1).

Abstract

Abstract: It is assumed that upon SARS-CoV-2 infection granulocytes can undergo potentially destructive oxidative burst. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate some parameters of redox and inflammatory signaling in granulocytes of recovered and of deceased COVID-19 pa-tients. Granulocytes were isolated from the blood of 32 COVID-19 patients on admission to the hospital (16 survived and 16 died within a week). The levels of proteins (immunoassay), eico-sanoids (UPLC-MS) and antioxidants activity (spectrophotometry) were examined. Enhanced activation of Nrf2 and NFκB and the levels of heme oxygenase and proinflammatory cytokines where found in granulocytes of all COVID-19 patients, while Cu,Zn-SOD and Mn-SOD activities were decreased, especially in deceased patients. Moreover, in patients who died increased levels of pro-inflammatory eicosanoids (PGE2 and TXB2) and decreased of anti-inflammatory (15d-PGJ2 and 5-HETE) were observed. However TXB2 was decreased, and IL-2 and IL-10 levels were in-creased in survivors, if compared both to healthy subjects and deceased patients, who did not change their cytokine generation. Therefore, it seems that by triggering transcription factors granulocytes activate redox signaling, leading to the production of pro-inflammatory eicosanoids, while reducing cellular antioxidant capacity via SOD, they express altered response to COVID-19, which might result in the onset of the vicious cycle of systemic oxidative stress in deceased patients.

Keywords

granulocytes; COVID-19; antioxidants; inflammation; eicosanoids; receptors-coupled G protein; SOD

Subject

LIFE SCIENCES, Immunology

Comments (1)

Comment 1
Received: 28 September 2022
The commenter has declared there is no conflict of interests.
Comment: Although the preprint was posted online by the MDPI journal Cells, due to suggestions of the expert reviewers to get it published, the indolent and incompetent editors decided to reject it (this journal has 1431 editors). Therefore, potential authors of any papers intended to be submitted to the Cells and other MDPI journals should be careful because of their editorial policy, which has nothing to do with science.
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