Preprint Article Version 1 Preserved in Portico This version is not peer-reviewed

Human-In-The-Loop Optimization of Transcranial Electrical Stimulation Effects: A Computational Perspective Based on Systems Analysis

Version 1 : Received: 4 August 2022 / Approved: 5 August 2022 / Online: 5 August 2022 (14:26:00 CEST)

How to cite: Arora, Y.; Dutta, A. Human-In-The-Loop Optimization of Transcranial Electrical Stimulation Effects: A Computational Perspective Based on Systems Analysis. Preprints 2022, 2022080123 (doi: 10.20944/preprints202208.0123.v1). Arora, Y.; Dutta, A. Human-In-The-Loop Optimization of Transcranial Electrical Stimulation Effects: A Computational Perspective Based on Systems Analysis. Preprints 2022, 2022080123 (doi: 10.20944/preprints202208.0123.v1).

Abstract

Individual differences in the responsiveness of the brain to transcranial electrical stimulation (tES) is increasingly demonstrated in large variability in the tES effects. Anatomically detailed computational brain models have been developed to address this variability; however, static brain models are not ‘realistic’ in accounting for the dynamic state of the brain. Therefore, human-in-the-loop optimization is proposed in this perspective article based on an extensive systems analysis of the tES neurovascular effects. First, modal analysis was conducted using a physiologically detailed neurovascular model that found stable modes in the 0 Hz to 0.05 Hz range for the pathway for vessel response through the smooth muscle cells, measured with functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS). tES effects in the 0 Hz to 0.05 Hz range can also be measured with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)-tDCS data with a maximum TR=10sec. Therefore, we investigated an open-source fMRI-tDCS dataset that used a TR=3.36sec. We found that both the anodal tDCS condition and sham tDCS condition had similar Finite Impulse Response at the region of interest underlying the anode and a remote location, which indicated a global hemodynamic effect of sham tDCS beyond the intended transient sensations. Here, transient sensations can have arousal effects on the hemodynamics so we conducted a healthy case series for black box modeling of fNIRS-pupillometry of short-duration tDCS effects. The block exogeneity test rejected the claim that tDCS is not a 1-step Granger-cause of the fNIRS total hemoglobin changes (HbT) and pupil dilation changes (p<0.05). Also, grey-box modeling using fNIRS of the tDCS effects in chronic stroke showed HbT response to be significantly different (paired-sample t-test, p<0.05) between the ipsilesional and the contralesional hemisphere for primary motor cortex tDCS and cerebellar tDCS which was subserved by the smooth muscle cells. Here, our perspective is that various physiological pathways subserving tES effects can lead to state-trait variability that can be challenging for clinical translation. Therefore, we conducted a case study on human-in-the-loop optimization using our reduced dimension model and a stochastic, derivative-free Covariance Matrix Adaptation Evolution Strategy. Future studies need to investigate human-in-the-loop optimization of tES for reducing inter-subject and intra-subject variability in tES effects.

Keywords

systems analysis; model predictive control; transcranial electrical stimulation; functional near infrared spectroscopy; pupillometry

Subject

ENGINEERING, Biomedical & Chemical Engineering

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