Preprint Review Version 2 Preserved in Portico This version is not peer-reviewed

Precision Oncology-Based Targeting of Signaling Pathways toward a Holistic Approach to Cancer Therapeutics

Version 1 : Received: 27 July 2022 / Approved: 28 July 2022 / Online: 28 July 2022 (08:16:06 CEST)
Version 2 : Received: 16 August 2022 / Approved: 16 August 2022 / Online: 16 August 2022 (10:35:16 CEST)

How to cite: Kumar, M. Precision Oncology-Based Targeting of Signaling Pathways toward a Holistic Approach to Cancer Therapeutics. Preprints 2022, 2022070432 (doi: 10.20944/preprints202207.0432.v2). Kumar, M. Precision Oncology-Based Targeting of Signaling Pathways toward a Holistic Approach to Cancer Therapeutics. Preprints 2022, 2022070432 (doi: 10.20944/preprints202207.0432.v2).

Abstract

The genetic changes appearing in the information system of the cell that program its unregulated growth and proliferation gradually lead to cancer manifestation, and the treatment options need to be guided accordingly. The critical roles played by some of the molecules associated with the signaling pathways and cell microenvironment that often induce tumorigenesis and metastasis have been described precisely in recent years based on findings of the human genome project and other related initiatives undertaken afterward to thoroughly understand the molecular basis of cancer cell behaviors. It is to rely upon the genomic study of cancer cells to fully understand the prognosis and pathways involved in disease progression to selectively target them for a cure. Furthermore, patients with the same cancer types often respond differently to cancer therapies, indicating the need for a patient-specific treatment regimen for cancer. In this direction, precision oncology, defined as the molecular profiling of tumors to identify targetable alterations for custom-tailored personalized treatment, is gaining ground as a potential means of cancer treatment and has started influencing the ways cancer has been treated in clinics. This article intends to comprehensively elucidate the foundations and frontiers of precision oncology in the context of recent advances in cancer genomics and single-cell technologies for assessing its scope and importance in the realization of a proper cure for cancer.

Supplementary and Associated Material

Keywords

mutation; gastric cancer; p53; K-Ras; c-Myc; cancer genomics; targeted therapy; immunotherapy

Subject

MEDICINE & PHARMACOLOGY, Oncology & Oncogenics

Comments (1)

Comment 1
Received: 16 August 2022
Commenter: Manish Kumar
Commenter's Conflict of Interests: Author
Comment: 1. Spelling and preposition-related changes made in references no—32, 81, and 109 and throughout the text without changing the main content. 

2. Repeated mention of reference no. 111-112 within the same line of the paragraph "The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) Program" of the manuscript removed. 

3.  References 123 and 124 were added and so reference no 123 was shifted to no. 125, the numbering down the line managed within the text and references up to the last reference no.161 accordingly. 

New References: 
123. Jumper, J., Evans, R., Pritzel, A. et al. Highly accurate protein structure prediction with AlphaFold. Nature 596, 583–589 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-021-03819-2   124. Thornton, J.M., Laskowski, R.A. & Borkakoti, N. AlphaFold heralds a data-driven revolution in biology and medicine. Nat Med 27, 1666–1669 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41591-021-01533-0    

124. Thornton, J.M., Laskowski, R.A. & Borkakoti, N. AlphaFold heralds a data-driven revolution in biology and medicine. Nat Med 27, 1666–1669 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41591-021-01533-0

4. Little sentence-related modifications were made in the abstract and cell signaling section which read as follows.
Abstract: It is to rely upon the genomic study of cancer cells to fully understand the prognosis and pathways involved in disease progression to selectively target them for a cure.
Hedgehog (Hh) and Notch signaling pathways: Hh performs its tasks through a signaling cascade in a context-dependent manner to regulate the change of balance between activator and repressor forms of glioma-associated oncogene (Gli) transcription factors.

5. Section on "Integrating Artificial intelligence (AI) with Multi-Omics in Precision Oncology" and "Signaling Pathway Dysregulation and Prospective Targets for Cancer Therapeutics" was revised in parts as per the guidelines.
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