Preprint Case Report Version 1 Preserved in Portico This version is not peer-reviewed

First Disease and the Great Imitator: A Diagnostic Dilemma with Ancient Maladies

Version 1 : Received: 5 April 2022 / Approved: 8 April 2022 / Online: 8 April 2022 (04:16:55 CEST)

A peer-reviewed article of this Preprint also exists.

Imad, H.A.; Lakanavisid, P.; Pisutsan, P.; Trerattanavong, K.; Ngamprasertchai, T.; Matsee, W.; Piyaphanee, W.; Leaungwutiwong, P.; Nguitragool, W.; Nakayama, E.E.; Shioda, T. A Case Report of Secondary Syphilis Co-infected with Measles: A Diagnostic Dilemma with Fever and Rash. Trop. Med. Infect. Dis. 2022, 7, 70. Imad, H.A.; Lakanavisid, P.; Pisutsan, P.; Trerattanavong, K.; Ngamprasertchai, T.; Matsee, W.; Piyaphanee, W.; Leaungwutiwong, P.; Nguitragool, W.; Nakayama, E.E.; Shioda, T. A Case Report of Secondary Syphilis Co-infected with Measles: A Diagnostic Dilemma with Fever and Rash. Trop. Med. Infect. Dis. 2022, 7, 70.

Journal reference: Trop. Med. Infect. Dis. 2022, 7, 70
DOI: 10.3390/tropicalmed7050070

Abstract

Fever and rash as manifestations of infection by microorganisms are collectively known as febrile exanthem. Viruses are more frequently associated with febrile exanthema, and often these symptoms are thus impetuously termed viral exanthem. However, bacteria represent a frequently overlooked infectious etiology causing rash in humans. In addition, certain microbes may exhibit pathognomonic features that erupt during illness and facilitate clinical diagnosis. Conversely, coinfections often obscure the clinical characteristics of the primary disease and further challenge clinicians attempting to reach a diagnosis. We retrospectively looked at de-identified clinical data of a patient who presented to the Hospital for Tropical Diseases in Bangkok in July 2019 with complaints of fever and rash. The case involved a 35-year-old who presented with a 3-day history of fever, respiratory symptoms, myalgia, conjunctivitis, diarrhea, and a generalized maculopapular rash. On examination, the patient was febrile, tachycardic, and tachypneic, with a mean arterial pressure of 95 mmHg. A differential white blood cell count showed: leukocytes, 5800/µL; neutrophils, 4408/µL; lymphocytes, 406/µL; and platelets, 155,000/µL. Striking findings involving the integumentary system included Koplik’s spots and generalized maculopapular rash. Further serology revealed positive immunoglobulin (Ig)M and IgG for both measles and rubella virus, including reactive serology for Treponema pallidum. Here we describe the clinical course and management of this patient.

Keywords

measles virus; exanthema; Treponema pallidum; secondary syphilis

Subject

LIFE SCIENCES, Virology

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