Gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms (GEP NENs) are rare cancers consisting of neuroendocrine carcinomas (NECs) and neuroendocrine tumors (NETs), which have been increasing in incidence in recent years. Few cell lines and pre-clinical models exist for the study of GEP NECs and NETs, limiting the ability to discover novel imaging and treatment modalities. To address this gap, we isolated tumor cells from cryopreserved patient GEP NECs and NETs and injected them into the flanks of immunocompromised mice to establish patient-derived xenograft (PDX) models. Two of 6 mice developed tumors (NEC913 and NEC1452). Over 90% of NEC913 and NEC1452 tumor cells stained positive for Ki67. NEC913 PDX tumors expressed neuroendocrine markers such as chromogranin A (CgA), synaptophysin (SYP), and somatostatin receptor-2 (SSTR2) whereas NEC1452 PDX tumors do not express SSTR2. Exome sequencing revealed loss of p53 and RB1 in both tumors. To demonstrate an application of these novel NEC PDX models for SSTR2-targeted peptide imaging, the NEC913 and NEC1452 cells were bilaterally injected into mice. Near infrared-labelled octreotide was administered and fluorescent signal was specifically observed for the NEC913 SSTR2 positive tumors. These 2 GEP NEC PDX models serve as valuable resource for GEP NEN therapy testing.
Gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms; patient-derived xenograft; tumor spheroids; somatostatin receptor-2; Near infrared-labelled octreotide analog
MEDICINE & PHARMACOLOGY, Oncology & Oncogenics
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