Healey Bird, B.; Nally, K.; Ronan, K.; Clarke, G.; Amu, S.; Almeida, A.S.; Flavin, R.; Finn, S. Cancer Immunotherapy with Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors-Biomarkers of Response and Toxicity; Current Limitations and Future Promise. Diagnostics2022, 12, 124.
Healey Bird, B.; Nally, K.; Ronan, K.; Clarke, G.; Amu, S.; Almeida, A.S.; Flavin, R.; Finn, S. Cancer Immunotherapy with Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors-Biomarkers of Response and Toxicity; Current Limitations and Future Promise. Diagnostics 2022, 12, 124.
Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors are monoclonal antibodies that are used to treat over one in three cancer patients. While they have changed the natural history of disease, prolonging life and preserving quality of life, they are highly active in less than 40% of patients, even in the most responsive malignancies such as melanoma, and cause significant autoimmune side effects. Licenced biomarkers include tumour Programmed Death Ligand 1 expression by immunohistochemistry, microsatellite instability, and Tumour Mutational Burden, none of which are particularly sensitive or specific. Emerging tumour and immune tissue biomarkers such as novel immunohistochemistry scores, tumour, stromal and immune cell gene expression profiling, and liquid biomarkers such as systemic inflammatory markers, kynurenine/tryptophan ratio, circulating immune cells, cytokines and DNA are discussed in this review. We also examine the influence of the faecal microbiome on treatment outcome and its use as a biomarker of response and toxicity.
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.