Preprint Review Version 1 Preserved in Portico This version is not peer-reviewed

Cancer Immunotherapy Biomarkers of Response and Toxicity; Current Limitations and Future Promise

Version 1 : Received: 23 December 2021 / Approved: 28 December 2021 / Online: 28 December 2021 (11:13:13 CET)

A peer-reviewed article of this Preprint also exists.

Healey Bird, B.; Nally, K.; Ronan, K.; Clarke, G.; Amu, S.; Almeida, A.S.; Flavin, R.; Finn, S. Cancer Immunotherapy with Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors-Biomarkers of Response and Toxicity; Current Limitations and Future Promise. Diagnostics 2022, 12, 124. Healey Bird, B.; Nally, K.; Ronan, K.; Clarke, G.; Amu, S.; Almeida, A.S.; Flavin, R.; Finn, S. Cancer Immunotherapy with Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors-Biomarkers of Response and Toxicity; Current Limitations and Future Promise. Diagnostics 2022, 12, 124.

Journal reference: Diagnostics 2022, 12, 124
DOI: 10.3390/diagnostics12010124

Abstract

Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors are monoclonal antibodies that are used to treat over one in three cancer patients. While they have changed the natural history of disease, prolonging life and preserving quality of life, they are highly active in less than 40% of patients, even in the most responsive malignancies such as melanoma, and cause significant autoimmune side effects. Licenced biomarkers include tumour Programmed Death Ligand 1 expression by immunohistochemistry, microsatellite instability, and Tumour Mutational Burden, none of which are particularly sensitive or specific. Emerging tumour and immune tissue biomarkers such as novel immunohistochemistry scores, tumour, stromal and immune cell gene expression profiling, and liquid biomarkers such as systemic inflammatory markers, kynurenine/tryptophan ratio, circulating immune cells, cytokines and DNA are discussed in this review. We also examine the influence of the faecal microbiome on treatment outcome and its use as a biomarker of response and toxicity.

Keywords

cancer; immunotherapy; biomarker; microenvironment; microbiome; flow cytometry; cytokine

Subject

MEDICINE & PHARMACOLOGY, Oncology & Oncogenics

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