Gildea, L.; Ayariga, J.A.; Ajayi, O.S.; Xu, J.; Villafane, R.; Samuel-Foo, M. Cannabis sativa CBD Extract Shows Promising Antibacterial Activity against Salmonella typhimurium and S. newington. Molecules2022, 27, 2669.
Gildea, L.; Ayariga, J.A.; Ajayi, O.S.; Xu, J.; Villafane, R.; Samuel-Foo, M. Cannabis sativa CBD Extract Shows Promising Antibacterial Activity against Salmonella typhimurium and S. newington. Molecules 2022, 27, 2669.
Neuroblastoma is an extra-cranial solid cancer that primarily affects children. Aggressive neuroblastoma tumors typically demonstrate resistance to conventional chemotherapeutic and radiotherapeutic regimens. Interestingly, the use of dietary supplements in the control of cancers has gained ascendance in recent scientific investigations. Capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin are bioactive components of Capsicum chinenses fruit. Qutenza (a high-dose capsaicin patch) is used in the management of neuropathic pain from postherpetic neuralgia and HIV-associated neuropathy. Research on the potency of capsaicin as an anticancer agent has been demonstrated on several cancer cell lines and in in vivo models. The possibility of conventional cancer therapies having long-term developmental and other side effects on pediatric patients invokes the need to search for other less toxic agents against neuroblastoma. In this study, we tested if Capsicum chinenses fruit extract has therapeutic potential against neuroblastoma. To carry out this study, capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin extract were made from Capsicum chinenses red fruits via hexane extraction method. Then, a range of concentrations (1pg/mL–100 mg/mL) of the extract was administered to cultured SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells and their viabilities assessed. The potency of capsaicin in destroying neuroblastoma cells indicated that it might act via multiple routes, hence we screen for possible receptors in and on neuroblastoma cells that might interact with capsaicin using molecular docking techniques. Our findings showed that capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin extracted from Capsicum chinenses reduced neuroblastoma cell viability in a concentration-dependent manner with an IC50 of 69.75 µg/mL. Our in-silico analysis determined that capsaicin might potentially bind to other receptors on the surface of neuroblastoma cells. We demonstrated a stronger binding affinity of capsaicin to human D4 Dopamine receptor (DRD4) than to the known vanilloid receptor TRPV1 using molecular docking. In conclusion, these results illustrated that Capsicum chinenses extract containing capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin is effective in reducing viability of neuroblastoma cells in vitro and may serve as a naturally derived treatment source for this pediatric cancer, secondly, capsaicin may have multiple targets, and its strong binding to human D4 Dopamine receptors may point to different pathways by which capsaicin exerts its cancer killing effects.
Neuroblastoma; Capsaicin; TRPV1; Childhood Cancer
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.