Preprint Review Version 1 Preserved in Portico This version is not peer-reviewed

Potential Routes and Innovative Technologies for Valorisation of Cassava Peels

Version 1 : Received: 26 October 2021 / Approved: 28 October 2021 / Online: 28 October 2021 (07:27:14 CEST)
(This article belongs to the Research Topic Ecofriendly Materials)

How to cite: Nyakuma, B.B. Potential Routes and Innovative Technologies for Valorisation of Cassava Peels. Preprints 2021, 2021100424 (doi: 10.20944/preprints202110.0424.v1). Nyakuma, B.B. Potential Routes and Innovative Technologies for Valorisation of Cassava Peels. Preprints 2021, 2021100424 (doi: 10.20944/preprints202110.0424.v1).

Abstract

The large-scale processing of Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz.) generates significant quantities of solid wastes annually. Cassava peels (CP) account for 5 wt.% - 30 wt.% of wastes from the processing of cassava tubers. The poor disposal and management of CP pose risks to human health, safety and the environment. Therefore, there is an urgent need to identify and examine low cost, socially acceptable and environmentally friendly strategies to mitigate the immediate and long terms disposal and management challenges. Lack of such measures results in the accumulation of CP wastes, which are currently buried, combusted, or dumped in open fields. Therefore, this paper reviewed the potential routes for the biochemical, thermochemical, and plasma valorisation of CP. The literature reviewed revealed that biochemical technologies such as anaerobic digestion (AD) and fermentation are the most widely utilised approaches currently adopted for CP valorisation. AD produces biogas (methane 50-72 vol. % and carbon dioxide 25-45 vol. %), whereas fermentation yields bioethanol. However, the numerous challenges such as substrate-induced inhibition, associated with the biochemical processes hamper microbial degradation, methane formation, and process efficiency. Furthermore, the processes generate secondary wastes or digestate/sludge, which requires additional processing before disposal. Therefore, innovative thermal, thermochemical, and plasma technologies were proposed to valorise CP into syngas, biofuels, bioenergy, biochemicals, and fertilizers, among others. However, the waste products of fermentation cannot be effectively utilised as bio-fertilizers, whereas bioethanol causes corrosion in engines. Overall, the biochemical, thermal, thermochemical and plasma technologies can effectively valorise CP for effective net energy generation.

Keywords

Cassava peels; valorisation; thermal; thermo-chemical; biochemical; biogas

Subject

ENGINEERING, Energy & Fuel Technology

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