Dong, S.; Jin, Y.; Bak, S.; Yoon, B.; Jeong, J. Explainable Convolutional Neural Network to Investigate Age-Related Changes in Multi-Order Functional Connectivity. Electronics2021, 10, 3020.
Dong, S.; Jin, Y.; Bak, S.; Yoon, B.; Jeong, J. Explainable Convolutional Neural Network to Investigate Age-Related Changes in Multi-Order Functional Connectivity. Electronics 2021, 10, 3020.
Functional connectivity (FC) is a potential candidate that can increase the performance of brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) in the elderly because of its compensatory role in neural circuits. However, it is difficult to decode FC by current machine learning techniques because of a lack of its physiological understanding. To investigate the suitability of FC in BCI for the elderly, we propose the decoding of lower- and higher-order FCs using a convolutional neural network (CNN) in six cognitive-motor tasks. The layer-wise relevance propagation (LRP) method describes how age-related changes in FCs impact BCI applications for the elderly compared to younger adults. Seventeen younger (24.5±2.7 years) and twelve older (72.5±3.2 years) adults were recruited to perform tasks related to hand-force control with or without mental calculation. CNN yielded a six-class classification accuracy of 75.3% in the elderly, exceeding the 70.7% accuracy for the younger adults. In the elderly, the proposed method increases the classification accuracy by 88.3% compared to the filter-bank common spatial pattern (FBCSP). LRP results revealed that both lower- and higher-order FCs were dominantly overactivated in the prefrontal lobe depending on task type. These findings suggest a promising application of multi-order FC with deep learning on BCI systems for the elderly.
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