Preprint Article Version 2 Preserved in Portico This version is not peer-reviewed

Cosmological Expansion RateVarious Measurement Results and Interpretation

Version 1 : Received: 13 October 2021 / Approved: 19 October 2021 / Online: 19 October 2021 (12:07:05 CEST)
Version 2 : Received: 20 February 2023 / Approved: 21 February 2023 / Online: 21 February 2023 (02:28:33 CET)

How to cite: Müller, V. Cosmological Expansion RateVarious Measurement Results and Interpretation. Preprints 2021, 2021100275. Müller, V. Cosmological Expansion Rate–Various Measurement Results and Interpretation. Preprints 2021, 2021100275.


Different values of the Hubble constant for extragalactic objects are not considered here. We give a number of examples of the extreme accordance of expansion rates of different fields of knowledge with the cosmological expansion rate. The coincidence of the expansion rates means that a common cause is almost inevitable. All these examples are gravitationally bound in themselves and in this case are subject to cosmological expansion. According to standard theory, this should not happen. We therefore question the common boundary of gravity and expansion for both theoretical and observational reasons and conclude that all gravitationally dominated objects participate in cosmological expansion or scale drift, contrary to general doctrine. The space expands with its contents while numerically maintaining distance, radius, rotation time and density. What is generally interpreted as an expansion is obviously a scale drift with a drift rate that corresponds to the size of the Hubble constant. The Earth is subject to expansion and scale drift. This results in numerically constant measured values. This drift apparently also applies to distant galaxies and other objects. The cosmological red shift is not interpreted here as a Doppler effect and numerical increase in distances, but in accordance with standard theory as an expansion or drift of the space-time scale. The expansion of the radii of galaxies makes the assumption of dark matter superfluous. The continents and our everyday environment are not subject to expansion or scale drift.


Cosmological expansion; Earth expansion; common expansion rates; recession velocity / relative velocity; examples


Physical Sciences, Astronomy and Astrophysics

Comments (1)

Comment 1
Received: 21 February 2023
Commenter: Volkmar Müller
Commenter's Conflict of Interests: Author
Comment:  Changes compared to preprints202110.0275.v1
In paragraph 1. ( Introduction) : 2 new sentences have been added before the       last sentence.

In paragraph 3. ( The lower limit ...) : After Reference [ 24] , References [26, 27,        28] added. After the sentence: As a result of different assumptions about the          lower limit of cosmological expansion, we hold our own view:
    Remainder of paragraph 3. revised

Paragraph 5. text line 9, The indication : approx. 3 - 4 cm / a clarified to approx.         2.9 - 3.9 cm / a.
Paragraph 5.1. is new paragraph 5.2. with the addition of Reference [27] at [23]. New paragraph 5.1. ( Inner Core of the Earth ) Newly revised inserted. Paragraph 5.3. ( Lunar distance ) Newly revised Paragraph 5.4.
New paragraph 5.3. ( Area ratio continents / oceans ) Newly inserted.
Paragraph 5.4. (Pioneer anomaly) is new paragraph 5.5. without changes.
Paragraph 5.5. ( Size evolution of galaxies ) is new paragraph 5.7. without                changes.

Paragraph 5.6 (Orbital expansion of Saturn's moon Titan) remains unchanged.
Paragraph 6 (Conclusions) Conclusions 1-5 and 9 have been revised.
References [26 , 27, 28, 29] were added.
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