Preprint Article Version 1 Preserved in Portico This version is not peer-reviewed

Factors Associated with Distress, Depressive and Anxiety Symptoms in Caregivers of Ischemic Stroke Patients

Version 1 : Received: 12 October 2021 / Approved: 14 October 2021 / Online: 14 October 2021 (10:49:20 CEST)

How to cite: Tongyonk, C.; Supasitthumrong, T.; Tunvirachaisakul, C.; Chutinet, A.; Maes, M. Factors Associated with Distress, Depressive and Anxiety Symptoms in Caregivers of Ischemic Stroke Patients. Preprints 2021, 2021100214 (doi: 10.20944/preprints202110.0214.v1). Tongyonk, C.; Supasitthumrong, T.; Tunvirachaisakul, C.; Chutinet, A.; Maes, M. Factors Associated with Distress, Depressive and Anxiety Symptoms in Caregivers of Ischemic Stroke Patients. Preprints 2021, 2021100214 (doi: 10.20944/preprints202110.0214.v1).

Abstract

Objectives To delineate the features of ischemic stroke patients and their caregivers that may predict distress, depression, and anxiety symptoms in the caregivers. Methods The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Score (HADS), Zarit Burden Interview (22 item-ZBI), and Perceived Stress Scale (PSS-10) were used to assess caregivers' burden, stress, depressive, and anxiety symptoms. We performed partial least square-structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM) in order to delineate a multi-step mediation model.Results In this study, 97 stroke patients and their caregivers were included. Multiple regression analysis revealed that ZBI-personal strain and stroke of other determined etiology explained 15.0 percent of the variance in the HADS depression score (p=0.001). We discovered that the caregiver's underlying disease and the National Institute Stroke Score (NIHSS) of the patients explained 13.6 percent of the variance in the total ZBI score of the caregivers (p=0.001). The total ZBI score, the presence of lacunar circulation infarction in the patients, and the caregiver's underlying disease explained 40.9 percent of the variance in the total PSS score of the caregivers (p <0.001). Moreover, PLS analysis showed that the NIHSS and the caregiver's underlying disease had significant indirect effects on the HADS score which were mediated by the ZBI score. Conclusions A large part of the variance in stress and depressive scores in caregivers of ischemic stroke patients is determined by the patient's disability, dependency, cognition, and stroke phenotypes, as well as the caregiver's health status and burden. Screening for the aforementioned factors in ischemic stroke caregivers is critical.

Keywords

depression, anxiety, stress, ischemic stroke, psychiatry, mental disorders

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