Preprint Article Version 1 Preserved in Portico This version is not peer-reviewed

Coordinated Control of Single-Phase End-Users for Phase Load Balancing in Active Electric Distribution Networks

Version 1 : Received: 24 September 2021 / Approved: 27 September 2021 / Online: 27 September 2021 (10:22:56 CEST)

A peer-reviewed article of this Preprint also exists.

Grigoraș, G.; Noroc, L.; Chelaru, E.; Scarlatache, F.; Neagu, B.-C.; Ivanov, O.; Gavrilaș, M. Coordinated Control of Single-Phase End-Users for Phase Load Balancing in Active Electric Distribution Networks. Mathematics 2021, 9, 2662. Grigoraș, G.; Noroc, L.; Chelaru, E.; Scarlatache, F.; Neagu, B.-C.; Ivanov, O.; Gavrilaș, M. Coordinated Control of Single-Phase End-Users for Phase Load Balancing in Active Electric Distribution Networks. Mathematics 2021, 9, 2662.

Journal reference: Mathematics 2021, 9, 2662
DOI: 10.3390/math9212662

Abstract

In the paper, a coordinated control methodology of single-phase (1-P) end-users switching oper-ations on the phases of an active electric distribution network (AEDN) has been proposed to ob-tain a minimum unbalance degree at the coupling common point (CCP) level with the main dis-tribution system. The phase load balancing (PLB) process considers the smart devices that switch from one phase to another phase the 1-P end-users (consumers and prosumers) to compensate for the phase load unbalance. The proposed methodology has been tested successfully in an AEDN belonging to a Romanian Distribution Network Operator (DNO) containing 114 end-users (104 consumers/10 prosumers) integrated into the Smart Metering System (SMS). The op-timal solution leads to a value of the objective function by 1.00004, represented by the unbalance factor, very close to the ideal target, 1.00. A comparative analysis was conducted considering other possible PLB cases (the consumer-level PLB and prosumer-level PLB), obtaining similar values of the UF (1.027 vs. 1.028), slightly higher than in the hybrid-level PLB. Also, the signifi-cant technical benefits were quantified through an energy-saving of 58.73% and decreasing the phase voltage unbalance rate by 91 % compared to the initial case (without PLB). These results emphasized the positive impact of the proposed coordinated control methodology on the PLB process and evidenced its effectiveness and applicability in the AEDNs.

Keywords

active electric distribution networks; phase load balancing; coordinated control; smart switching devices; end-users

Subject

ENGINEERING, Energy & Fuel Technology

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