Preprint Review Version 1 Preserved in Portico This version is not peer-reviewed

Promoting Simulation-Based Learning through Low-Cost Simulators: Development, Skills Targeted and Implementation

Version 1 : Received: 6 September 2021 / Approved: 7 September 2021 / Online: 7 September 2021 (12:06:27 CEST)

How to cite: Fatima Khan, I.; Zidoun, Y.; Mascarenhas, S.; Zary, N. Promoting Simulation-Based Learning through Low-Cost Simulators: Development, Skills Targeted and Implementation. Preprints 2021, 2021090126 (doi: 10.20944/preprints202109.0126.v1). Fatima Khan, I.; Zidoun, Y.; Mascarenhas, S.; Zary, N. Promoting Simulation-Based Learning through Low-Cost Simulators: Development, Skills Targeted and Implementation. Preprints 2021, 2021090126 (doi: 10.20944/preprints202109.0126.v1).

Abstract

Background: Simulations have historically aided training programs by providing a realistic and holistic replication of professional scenarios and procedures. Simulations have developed over the past 40 years to include varying fidelities and modalities of simulation. Learning in a simulation-centered environment has benefits, ranging from improved patient care to specific skills acquisition while catering to students’ numerous and varied learning approaches. Simulation is a multifaceted field that benefits all parties, the teachers, the learners, and the patients. The application of simulation to medical education and its amalgamation with other modes and substitutes allows for a more integrated learning and testing curriculum that advances the current trajectory of medical education. Such developments, however, are limited to resource rich areas, leaving behind low-middle income countries to use traditional, less evolved methodologies and practices. This review aimed to explore different aspects of simulation and focus specifically on low-cost task trainers and their accessibility. Method: The purpose of the study was to assess the accessibility of low-cost task trainers in terms of cost-effectiveness, distribution, validation, and frequency within specific specialties. To do so, 84 PubMed publications have been screened, and 39 filtered research studies have collected the necessary data. After analyzing the papers, we classified the following information – process, specialization, validation (y/n), costs, development location, and year of publication. Results: After carefully analyzing the accumulated data from the selected 39 publications, we found that most studies (i.e., 6 out of 39) were published in 2020. Emergency Medicine was the most common specialty for which low-cost trainers were developed (9 out of 39 procedural simulators); Otolaryngology followed this with 8 out of 39 trainers and general surgery with 7/39 of the task-trainers. The price ranges fluctuated and fell within the price bracket of USD 0 to USD 400 collectively. Our review also uncovered the concentration of development of such innovations solely in high income countries (HICs). Conclusion: Simulation is an invaluable tool applicable to a diverse range of phases of medical education. Future conjunction of simulation with low-cost substitutes along with increased encouragement and enthusiasm towards developing cost effective simulation-based learning environments (SBLEs) with the reserves and requirements of these areas in mind may prove to be a reliable option for low and middle resource settings

Keywords

Medical Education; Simulation; Low-Cost; Task trainers; procedural trainers

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