Preprint Article Version 1 Preserved in Portico This version is not peer-reviewed

Phytochemical Profile, Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Ephedra alata Decne Growing in South Algeria

Version 1 : Received: 12 August 2021 / Approved: 13 August 2021 / Online: 13 August 2021 (09:23:00 CEST)

How to cite: Benarba, B.; Douad, O.; Gadoum, C.; Belhouala, K.; Mahdjour, S. Phytochemical Profile, Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Ephedra alata Decne Growing in South Algeria. Preprints 2021, 2021080296 (doi: 10.20944/preprints202108.0296.v1). Benarba, B.; Douad, O.; Gadoum, C.; Belhouala, K.; Mahdjour, S. Phytochemical Profile, Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Ephedra alata Decne Growing in South Algeria. Preprints 2021, 2021080296 (doi: 10.20944/preprints202108.0296.v1).

Abstract

Ephedra alata Decne. (Ephedraceae) is a medicinal species commonly used to treat cancers, respiratory diseases, fever, and hypertension. The present study aimed to establish a phytochemical profile, evaluate the antioxidant potential and estimate the anti-inflammatory activities of .. Aqueous and methanolic extracts of E. alata aerial parts were phytochemically investigated using standard methods. DPPH, phosphomolybdenum total antioxidant capacity and reducing power assays were used to evaluate the antioxidant activity. Antioxidant activity was determined using total antioxidant capacity, the scavenging activity of the stable DPPH free radical and ferric reducing antioxidant power assays. The anti-inflammatory activity was determined using egg albumin membrane denaturation and human red blood cells membrane stabilizing assays. The anti-inflammatory potential of E. alata extracts was evaluated using human red blood cells membrane stabilization, egg albumin and BSA albumin denaturation assays. Quinones, anthraquinones, steroids, phytosteroids, phenols, terpenoids, flavonoids, saponins, glycosides, Cardiac glycosides, reducing sugars and anthocyanins were present in the E. alata’s aqueous extract, in addition to coumarins and proteins in the methanolic extract. The highest total phenolic and flavonoid content was recorded in the aqueous extract with 8.66 ±0.09 mg GA/g and 248.04 ±1.47 mg Q/g, respectively. On the other hand, E. alata methanolic extract had the highest tannin content of 62.12 ±0.10 mg C/g. The best radical scavenging activity (IC50 = 4.63±0.00 mg/ml) and total antioxidant capacity were exhibited by the E. alata aqueous (7.35±0.12 mg/ml AAE), whereas the methanolic extract possessed the highest reducing power activity (1.81±0.00 mg AAE/ml). Regarding the anti-inflammatory activities, E. alata methanolic extract exerted the highest HRBC stabilization of 34.72 ±0.08% whereas the aqueous extract exhibited the highest bovine serum and Egg albumin denaturation inhibition of 99.22 ±0.02% and 73.31 ±0.90, respectively. Taken together, our results suggest that E. alata aerial parts aqueous and methanolic extracts can be utilized as future antioxidants and anti-inflammatory ethnomedicines owing to their rich bioactive molecules content.

Keywords

Ephedra alata; antioxidant activity; anti-inflammatory activity; phytochemical screening

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