Preprint Article Version 1 Preserved in Portico This version is not peer-reviewed

Pharmacological, Biochemical and Molecular Investigations in 6-OHDA Induced Parkinson’s Disease Rats on the Protection Benefits of Mangiferin in Behavioral, Inflammatory and Oxidative Biomarkers

Version 1 : Received: 30 July 2021 / Approved: 4 August 2021 / Online: 4 August 2021 (13:22:51 CEST)

How to cite: Tiwari, P.C.; Jain, M.; Kartik, S.; Nath, R.; Pal, R. Pharmacological, Biochemical and Molecular Investigations in 6-OHDA Induced Parkinson’s Disease Rats on the Protection Benefits of Mangiferin in Behavioral, Inflammatory and Oxidative Biomarkers. Preprints 2021, 2021080116 (doi: 10.20944/preprints202108.0116.v1). Tiwari, P.C.; Jain, M.; Kartik, S.; Nath, R.; Pal, R. Pharmacological, Biochemical and Molecular Investigations in 6-OHDA Induced Parkinson’s Disease Rats on the Protection Benefits of Mangiferin in Behavioral, Inflammatory and Oxidative Biomarkers. Preprints 2021, 2021080116 (doi: 10.20944/preprints202108.0116.v1).

Abstract

Background: Persistent up regulation of NF-κB leads to chronic inflammation and subsequent microglial activation and takes neurons towards death by activating death receptor domains and the p53 pathway. Thus, inhibition of NF-κB may lead to more effective treatment for Parkinson’s disease. Therefore, we have used mangiferin, specific inhibitor of NF-κB in this study. Method: The study utilized male Wistar rats weighing 200-250 gm (n=8 in each group). Stereotactic surgery of rats was done to induce 6-OHDA lesioning in rats. On day 42, rats were subjected to behavioural studies to evaluate effect of mangiferin and their brains were taken out after euthanasia to perform biochemical and molecular studies. Results: Mangiferin significantly increases locomotor parameters in 6-OHDA lesioned rats. It also decreases activity of Cyclooxygenase enzyme which then leads to decrease concentration of inflammatory cytokines. Microglial inflammation was also substantially reduced by reducing MPO concentration. Oxidative stress burden was also reduced after treatment with mangiferin as indicated by increase in Total Antioxidant Capacity, SOD and Catalase and reduction in concentration of MDA. Treatment with mangiferin also reduces burden of oxidative stress by increasing the activity of NRF2/ARE pathway. Activity of Caspase 3 and 9 was also significantly reduced after treatment with mangiferin. Significant decrease in activity of both Cox1 and Cox 2 was also observed. Maximum improvement in all parameters was observed in rats treated with grouping of mangiferin 45mg.kg-1 and levodopa 10mg.kg-1. Treatment with levodopa alone has no significant effect on biochemical and molecular parameters though it significantly improves behavioural parameters. Conclusion and Implications: Results of this study suggest that mangiferin has protective effect in hemi-parkinsonian rats by inhibiting NF-κB. Current treatment of Parkinson’s disease does not target the underlying problem of the disease. Therefore, combination therapy of mangiferin and levodopa can be helpful in better management of Parkison’s.

Keywords

6-OHDA, NF-κB, Mangiferin, Inflammation, Cox, Caspases

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