Preprint Review Version 1 Preserved in Portico This version is not peer-reviewed

Pathophysiological Roles of Abnormal Axon Initial Segments in Neurodevelopmental Disorders

Version 1 : Received: 28 July 2021 / Approved: 29 July 2021 / Online: 29 July 2021 (15:49:42 CEST)

A peer-reviewed article of this Preprint also exists.

Fujitani, M.; Otani, Y.; Miyajima, H. Pathophysiological Roles of Abnormal Axon Initial Segments in Neurodevelopmental Disorders. Cells 2021, 10, 2110. Fujitani, M.; Otani, Y.; Miyajima, H. Pathophysiological Roles of Abnormal Axon Initial Segments in Neurodevelopmental Disorders. Cells 2021, 10, 2110.

Journal reference: Cells 2021, 10, 2110
DOI: 10.3390/cells10082110

Abstract

The 20–60-μm axon initial segment (AIS) is proximally located at the interface between the axon and cell body. AIS has characteristic molecular and structural properties regulated by the crucial protein, ankyrin-G. The AIS contains a high density of Na+ channels relative to the cell body, which allows low thresholds for initiation of action potential (AP). Molecular and physiological studies have shown that the AIS is also a key domain for the control of neuronal excitability by homeostatic mechanisms. The AIS has high plasticity in normal developmental processes and pathological activities such as injury, neurodegeneration, and neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs). In the first half of this review, we provide an overview of the molecular, structural, and ion-channel characteristics of AIS, AIS regulation through axo-axonic synapses, and axo-glial interactions. In the second half, to understand the relationship between NDDs and AIS, we discuss the activity-dependent plasticity of AIS, the human mutation of AIS regulatory genes, and the pathophysiological role of the abnormal AIS in the NDD model animals and patients. We propose that AIS may provide a potentially valuable structural biomarker in response to abnormal network activity in vivo as well as a new treatment concept at the neural circuit level.

Keywords

axon initial segment (AIS); action potential (AP); ankyrin-G; spectrins; plasticity; neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs)

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