Ramírez-López, A.; Dávila-Maldonado, O.; Nájera-Bastida, A.; Morales, R.D.; Rodríguez-Ávila, J.; Muñiz-Valdés, C.R. Analysis of Non-Symmetrical Heat Transfers during the Casting of Steel Billets and Slabs. Metals2021, 11, 1380.
Ramírez-López, A.; Dávila-Maldonado, O.; Nájera-Bastida, A.; Morales, R.D.; Rodríguez-Ávila, J.; Muñiz-Valdés, C.R. Analysis of Non-Symmetrical Heat Transfers during the Casting of Steel Billets and Slabs. Metals 2021, 11, 1380.
Steel is one of the essential materials in the world's civilization. It is essential to produce many products such as pipelines, mechanical elements in machines, vehicles, profiles, and beam sections for buildings in many industries. Until the '50s of the 20th century, steel products required a complex process known as ingot casting; for years, steelmakers focused on developing and simplifying this process. The result was the con-tinuous casting process (CCP); it is the most productive method to produce steel. The CCP allows producing significant volumes of steel sections without interruption and is more productive than the formal ingot casting process. The CCP begins by transferring the liquid steel from the steel-ladle to a tundish. This tundish or vessel distributes the liquid steel, by flowing through its volume, to one or more strands having wa-ter-cooled copper molds. The mold is the primary cooling system, PCS, solidifying a steel shell to withstand a liquid core and its friction forces with the mold wall. Further down the mold, the rolls drive the steel section in the SCS. Here the steel section is cooled, solidifying the remaining liquid core, by sprays placed in every cooling segment all around the billet and along the curved section of the machine. Finally, the steel strand goes towards a horizontal-straight free-spray zone, losing heat by radiation mechanism, where the billet cools down further to total solidification. A moving torch cutting-scissor splits the billet to the desired length at the end of this heat-radiant zone.
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.