Preprint Article Version 1 Preserved in Portico This version is not peer-reviewed

Seasonal Spatial and Temporal Distribution of Chlorophyll-a Concentration over Kuwait and the Arabian Gulf using Satellite and In-Situ Data

Version 1 : Received: 9 July 2021 / Approved: 9 July 2021 / Online: 9 July 2021 (15:49:04 CEST)

How to cite: Albanai, J.A. Seasonal Spatial and Temporal Distribution of Chlorophyll-a Concentration over Kuwait and the Arabian Gulf using Satellite and In-Situ Data. Preprints 2021, 2021070232 (doi: 10.20944/preprints202107.0232.v1). Albanai, J.A. Seasonal Spatial and Temporal Distribution of Chlorophyll-a Concentration over Kuwait and the Arabian Gulf using Satellite and In-Situ Data. Preprints 2021, 2021070232 (doi: 10.20944/preprints202107.0232.v1).

Abstract

The concentration of chlorophyll-a (chlor-a) is an important indicator of marine water quality, as it is considered an indicator of the phytoplankton density in a specific area. Remote sensing techniques have been developed to measure the near-surface concentration of chlor-a in water across the correlation between spectral bands and in situ data. This algorithm applies to sensors of varying spatial, temporal and spectral resolutions. However, in this study, chlor-a level 2 and 3 products of SNPP – VIIRS spectrometer (Equation OC3) of NASA OceanColor suite was relied upon to study the spatial and temporal distribution of chlor-a concentration in the Arabian Gulf (also known as the Persian Gulf) and the State of Kuwait’s water (located to the north-eastern part of the Arabian Gulf) from 2012 to 2019. Ground truthing points (n = 192) matched to the level 2 products have been used to build an empirical model and cross-validate it. The correlation was positive where was 0.79 and the validation RMSE was = ± 0.64 mg/m-3. The derived algorithm was then applied to chlor-a level 3 seasonal products. Additionally, the chlor-a concentration values of Kuwaiti waters have been enhanced using the IDW algorithm to increase the spatial resolution, as it is considered as a small area compared to the spatial resolution of level 3 chlor-a products. The model derived from IDW was tested using the Mann Whitney test (Sig = 0.948 p > 0.01). However, the result showed that the chlor-a concentration is higher in Kuwait Bay compared to Kuwaiti water, and it is higher in Kuwaiti water compared to the Arabian Gulf. The coasts have higher concentrations too, when compared to the open water. Generally, the chlor-a increases in winter and makes a semi-regular cycle during the years of study; this cycle is more regular in the Gulf’s waters than in Kuwait’s.

Subject Areas

Kuwait; Arabian Gulf; Remote Sensing; ChlorophyII-a; Marine Biogeography

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