Preprint Article Version 1 Preserved in Portico This version is not peer-reviewed

A Study on Circular Economy Material Using Fish Scales as Natural Flame Retardant and the Properties of Its Composite Materials

Version 1 : Received: 7 July 2021 / Approved: 8 July 2021 / Online: 8 July 2021 (11:04:10 CEST)

How to cite: Liu, S.; Shen, M.; Yang, C.; Chiang, C. A Study on Circular Economy Material Using Fish Scales as Natural Flame Retardant and the Properties of Its Composite Materials. Preprints 2021, 2021070197 (doi: 10.20944/preprints202107.0197.v1). Liu, S.; Shen, M.; Yang, C.; Chiang, C. A Study on Circular Economy Material Using Fish Scales as Natural Flame Retardant and the Properties of Its Composite Materials. Preprints 2021, 2021070197 (doi: 10.20944/preprints202107.0197.v1).

Abstract

In this study, a composite flame retardant was created by combining fish scale (FS), fishery waste, and ammonium polyphosphate (APP), a commercially available flame retardant. The composite flame retardant was added to epoxy resin (EP) to form an EP/APP/FS composite that prevents burns and is environmentally friendly. The use of FS conforms to the concept of circular economy and lowers costs by reducing the consumption of APP. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), integral procedural decomposition temperature (IPDT), pyrolysis kinetics, limiting oxygen index (LOI), the Underwriters Laboratories 94 (UL94) flammability test, scanning election microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy were used to determine the thermal properties, flame retardant properties, flame retardant mechanism, char morphology, and composition of the composites. The TGA results indicated that the addition of 40% flame retardant raised the char residue from 16.45 wt% (pure EP) to 36.07 wt%, IPDT from 685.6 °C (pure EP) to 1143.1°C, LOI from 21% (pure EP) to 30%, and UL94 classification from fail (pure EP) to V-0. These results suggest an increase in char residue, which indicates better protection of the polymer matrix material. The improvements in IPDT, LOI, and UL94 classification, which indicate greater thermal stability, lower flammability (from flammable to fireproof), and higher flammability rating (from fail to V-0), respectively, suggest that the composite material has favorable thermal properties and is less inflammable.

Subject Areas

fishery waste; epoxy; fish scale; ammonium polyphosphate; flame retardant

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