Preprint Review Version 1 Preserved in Portico This version is not peer-reviewed

Unified Theory for Hybrid-Photocatalysts: A Review on New Strategies for Synergic, Enhanced Conversion Efficacy and Photoredox Cycle

Version 1 : Received: 24 June 2021 / Approved: 25 June 2021 / Online: 25 June 2021 (07:38:09 CEST)

How to cite: Lin, J. Unified Theory for Hybrid-Photocatalysts: A Review on New Strategies for Synergic, Enhanced Conversion Efficacy and Photoredox Cycle. Preprints 2021, 2021060608 (doi: 10.20944/preprints202106.0608.v1). Lin, J. Unified Theory for Hybrid-Photocatalysts: A Review on New Strategies for Synergic, Enhanced Conversion Efficacy and Photoredox Cycle. Preprints 2021, 2021060608 (doi: 10.20944/preprints202106.0608.v1).

Abstract

This article presents, for the first time, comprehensive model based on the proposed mechanism of Rahal et al [17], Bonardi {20], Tar et al [20], and Mau et al [24], for 3-component systems of G1/Iod/EDB, G1/Iod/amine (in gold chloride), and Iod/Benzoic/Borate (for reduced oxygen inhibition) for the hybri free radical (FRP) and cationic (CP) photopolymerization of interpenetrated polymer network (IPN) systems. Analytic formulas are developed to explore the new features including: (i) conversion efficacy(CE) of FRP is an increasing function of the light intensity (I), the effective absorption coefficient (b), for transient state, whereas, CE at steady-state is independent to the light intensity; (ii) initiator regeneration (RGE)provides a catalytic cycle for improved CE for FRP and CP; (iii) in the IPN system, the synergic effects due to the co-exist of FRP and CP include: (i) CP can increase the medium viscosity limiting the diffusional oxygen replenishment, such that OIH is reduced; (ii) the cationic monomer also acts as a diluting agent for the radical polymer network, and (iii) the exothermic property of the CP polymerization. We have proposed ascaling law for the transient and steady-state dependence of CE on the key parameter P=bIC0, given by a an m-order power law of Pm, with m = 0.5 to 1.5, depending on various conditions. The CE also has an optimal value for maximum CE. The presented comprehensive model (with minimum mathematics) focusing on the enhancement mechanisms/pathways, provides analytic formulas which can be used to analyze reported data, and, more importantly, serves as guidance for exploring new functional materials or new kinetic schemes for improved conversion or procedures for both industrial and medical applications such as additive manufacturing (AM), 3D and 4D bioprinting. Finally, we have proposed new directions/experiments based on our theoretical predictions.

Keywords

polymerization kinetics; conversion efficacy; free radical and cationic radical; photoredox catalyst; 3D bioprinting.

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