Working Paper Review Version 2 This version is not peer-reviewed

Recent Progress Regarding the Molecular Aspects of Insect Gall Formation

Version 1 : Received: 18 June 2021 / Approved: 21 June 2021 / Online: 21 June 2021 (09:34:51 CEST)
Version 2 : Received: 24 August 2021 / Approved: 24 August 2021 / Online: 24 August 2021 (13:04:19 CEST)

How to cite: Takeda, S.; Hirano, T.; Issei, O.; Sato, M.H. Recent Progress Regarding the Molecular Aspects of Insect Gall Formation. Preprints 2021, 2021060494 Takeda, S.; Hirano, T.; Issei, O.; Sato, M.H. Recent Progress Regarding the Molecular Aspects of Insect Gall Formation. Preprints 2021, 2021060494

Abstract

Galls are characteristic plant structures formed by cell size enlargement and/or cell proliferation induced by parasitic or pathogenic organisms. Insects are a major inducer of galls, and insect galls can occur on plant leaves, stems, floral buds, flowers, fruits, or roots. Many of these exhibit unique shapes, providing shelter and nutrients to insects. To form unique gall structures, gall-inducing insects are believed to secrete certain effector molecules and hijack host developmental programs. However, the molecular mechanisms of insect gall induction and development remain largely unknown due to the difficulties associated with the study of non-model plants in the wild. Recent advances in next-generation sequencing have allowed us to determine the biological processes in non-model organisms, including gall-inducing insects and their host plants. In this review, we first summarize the adaptive significance of galls for insects and plants. Thereafter, we summarize recent progress regarding the molecular aspects of insect gall formation.

Keywords

adaptive significance; evolution of gall insects; gall-inducing insects; gall formation mechanism; insect effectors

Comments (1)

Comment 1
Received: 24 August 2021
Commenter: Masa H. Sato
Commenter's Conflict of Interests: Author
Comment: I deleted whole parts of the first author’s description, and then precisely revised the rest of the manuscript according to your comments and then reconstructed the manuscript as follows: (a) We added the new description in sections 3 (line149-166), 4.1 (line 194-199) and 4.2 (line 257-281). (b) We generated new figures (Figure 2 and Figure 3) for explaining sections 2 and 4.4.   For above revisions, the manuscript is more emphasis on summarizing the recent progress regarding the molecular mechanisms of the insect gall formation process.
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