Preprint Article Version 1 Preserved in Portico This version is not peer-reviewed

Urine LOX-1 and Volatilome as Promising Tools towards Early Detection of Renal Cancer

Version 1 : Received: 14 June 2021 / Approved: 15 June 2021 / Online: 15 June 2021 (10:29:39 CEST)

How to cite: Murdocca, M.; Torino, F.; Pucci, S.; Costantini, M.; Capuano, R.; Greggi, C.; Polidoro, C.; Somma, G.; Pasqualetti, V.; Ketchanji Mougang, Y.; Catini, A.; Simone, G.; Paolesse, R.; Orlandi, A.; Mauriello, A.; Roselli, M.; Magrini, A.; Novelli, G.; Natale, C.D.; Sangiuolo, F.C. Urine LOX-1 and Volatilome as Promising Tools towards Early Detection of Renal Cancer. Preprints 2021, 2021060393 (doi: 10.20944/preprints202106.0393.v1). Murdocca, M.; Torino, F.; Pucci, S.; Costantini, M.; Capuano, R.; Greggi, C.; Polidoro, C.; Somma, G.; Pasqualetti, V.; Ketchanji Mougang, Y.; Catini, A.; Simone, G.; Paolesse, R.; Orlandi, A.; Mauriello, A.; Roselli, M.; Magrini, A.; Novelli, G.; Natale, C.D.; Sangiuolo, F.C. Urine LOX-1 and Volatilome as Promising Tools towards Early Detection of Renal Cancer. Preprints 2021, 2021060393 (doi: 10.20944/preprints202106.0393.v1).

Abstract

Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) represents around 3% of all cancers, within which clear cell RCC (ccRCC) are the most common type (70–75%). The RCC disease regularly progresses asymptomatically and upon presentation is recurrently metastatic, so an early method of detection is necessary. The identification of one or more spe-cific biomarkers measurable in biofluids (i.e urine) by combined approaches could surely be appropriate for this kind of cancer, especially due to easy obtainability by non invasive method. OLR1 is a metabolic gene that encodes for the Lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein re-ceptor-1 (LOX-1), implicated in inflammation, atherosclerosis, ROS and metabolic disor-der-associated carcinogenesis. Specifically, LOX-1 is clearly involved in tumor insurgence and progression of different human cancers. This work reports for the first time the presence of LOX-1 protein in ccRCC urine and its peculiar distribution in tumoral tissues. In parallel, urine samples headspace has been analyzed for the presence of the volatile compounds (VOCs) by SPME-GC/MS and gas sensor array. In particular, it was found by GC/MS analysis that 2-Cyclohexen-1-one,3-methyl-6-(1-methylethyl)- correlates with LOX-1 concentration in urine. Thus, the combined approach of VOCs analysis and protein quantification could led to promis-ing results in terms of diagnostic and prognostic potential for ccRCC tumor.

Subject Areas

clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC); LOX-1 protein; volatile compounds (VOCs); prognostic biomarker; urine; gas chromatography mass spectrometer (GC/MS)

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