Preprint Article Version 1 Preserved in Portico This version is not peer-reviewed

Emission Characteristics of Hazardous Air Pollutants from Medium-Duty Diesel Trucks Based on Driving Cycles

Version 1 : Received: 13 June 2021 / Approved: 14 June 2021 / Online: 14 June 2021 (11:38:40 CEST)

A peer-reviewed article of this Preprint also exists.

Jung, S.; Kim, S.; Chung, T.; Hong, H.; Lee, S.; Lim, J. Emission Characteristics of Hazardous Air Pollutants from Medium-Duty Diesel Trucks Based on Driving Cycles. Sustainability 2021, 13, 7834. Jung, S.; Kim, S.; Chung, T.; Hong, H.; Lee, S.; Lim, J. Emission Characteristics of Hazardous Air Pollutants from Medium-Duty Diesel Trucks Based on Driving Cycles. Sustainability 2021, 13, 7834.

Journal reference: Sustainability 2021, 13, 7834
DOI: 10.3390/su13147834

Abstract

Studies on the characteristics of hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) in the emissions of medium-duty diesel trucks are significantly insufficient compared to that on heavy-duty trucks. This study investigates the characteristics of regulated pollutants and HAPs such as volatile organic compounds (VOCs), aldehydes, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and estimates non-methane hydrocarbon (NMHC) speciation in the emissions of medium-duty diesel trucks. Ten medium-duty diesel trucks conforming to Euros 5 and 6 were tested for worldwide harmonized light duty driving test cycle (WLTC), new European driving cycle (NEDC), constant volume sampler (CVS)-75, and National Institute of Environmental Research (NIER)-9 using a chassis dynamometer. CO and NMHC emissions were the highest in the NEDC because of its longer low-speed driving time. NOx emissions were the highest in WLTC owing to the influence of thermal NOx in the high-speed phase. Alkanes dominated non-methane volatile compound (NMVOC) emissions owing to the low reaction of the diesel oxidation catalyst. After-treatment system, driving, and engine conditions influenced the individual components of NMVOC emissions. Formaldehyde emissions were the highest among aldehydes irrespective of driving cycles. By sampling the particle-phase of PAHs, we detected benzo(k)fluoranthene and benzo(a)pyrene and estimated the concentrations of the gas-phase PAHs with models to obtain the total PAH concentrations. The toxic equivalency quantities of benzo(k)fluoranthene and benzo(a)pyrene from NIER-9 (cold) for both Euro 5 and Euro 6 vehicles were more than five times higher than that of NIER (hot) and NEDC. In the case of NMHC speciation, formaldehyde emissions were the highest in all the driving cycles. Formaldehyde and benzene must be controlled in the emissions of medium-duty diesel trucks to reduce their health threats. The results of this study will aid in establishing a national emission inventory system for HAPs of mobile sources in Korea.

Subject Areas

Hazardous air pollutants; Medium-duty diesel trucks; Driving cycles; Non-methane volatile compound; Aldehydes; Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

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