Working Paper Article Version 1 This version is not peer-reviewed

The Expression of PD-1 Ligand 1 on Macrophages and Its Clinical Impacts and Mechanisms in Lung Adenocarcinoma.

Version 1 : Received: 11 June 2021 / Approved: 11 June 2021 / Online: 11 June 2021 (13:08:03 CEST)

How to cite: Shinchi, Y.; Komohara, Y.; Matsubara, E.; Yonemitsu, K.; Yoshii, D.; Fujiwara, Y.; Ikeda, K.; Tamada, K.; Suzuki, M. The Expression of PD-1 Ligand 1 on Macrophages and Its Clinical Impacts and Mechanisms in Lung Adenocarcinoma.. Preprints 2021, 2021060318 Shinchi, Y.; Komohara, Y.; Matsubara, E.; Yonemitsu, K.; Yoshii, D.; Fujiwara, Y.; Ikeda, K.; Tamada, K.; Suzuki, M. The Expression of PD-1 Ligand 1 on Macrophages and Its Clinical Impacts and Mechanisms in Lung Adenocarcinoma.. Preprints 2021, 2021060318

Abstract

Background; Programmed death-1 (PD-1) and PD-1 ligand 1 (PD-L1) are target molecules for immunotherapy in non-small cell lung cancer. PD-L1 is expressed not only in cancer cells, but also on macrophages, and has been suggested to contribute to macrophage-mediated immune suppression. Methods; Clinical significance of PD-L1 expression on macrophages in human lung adenocarcinoma was examined. The mechanisms of PD-L1 overexpression on macrophages were investigated by means of cell culture studies. Results; High PD-L1 expression on macrophages was correlated with the presence of EGFR mutation, a lower cancer grade, and a shorter cancer-specific overall survival. In an in vitro study using lung cancer cell lines and human monocyte-derived macrophages, the conditioned medium from cancer cells was found to up-regulate PD-L1 expression on macrophages via STAT3 activation, and a cytokine array revealed that granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) was a candidate factor that induced PD-L1 expression. Culture studies using recombinant GM-CSF, neutralizing antibody, and inhibitors indicated that PD-L1 overexpression was induced via STAT3 activation by GM-CSF derived from cancer cells. Conclusions; PD-L1 overexpression on macrophages via the GM-CSF/STAT3 pathway was suggested to promote cancer progression in lung adenocarcinoma. Cancer cell-derived GM-CSF might be a promising target for anti-cancer therapy.

Subject Areas

lung adenocarcinoma; macrophage; PD-L1; GM-CSF; STAT3

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