Preprint Review Version 1 Preserved in Portico This version is not peer-reviewed

Role of Astrocytes in Central Nervous System, Disease Implications and New Physiological Implications in Memory and Learning

Version 1 : Received: 7 June 2021 / Approved: 9 June 2021 / Online: 9 June 2021 (07:36:28 CEST)

How to cite: Valles, S.L.; Singhb, S.K.; Campo, I.; Jorda, A. Role of Astrocytes in Central Nervous System, Disease Implications and New Physiological Implications in Memory and Learning. Preprints 2021, 2021060241 (doi: 10.20944/preprints202106.0241.v1). Valles, S.L.; Singhb, S.K.; Campo, I.; Jorda, A. Role of Astrocytes in Central Nervous System, Disease Implications and New Physiological Implications in Memory and Learning. Preprints 2021, 2021060241 (doi: 10.20944/preprints202106.0241.v1).

Abstract

Inside Central Nervous System (CNS) appears neurons and glia cells. There are more glial cells than neurons and have more functions than neurons. Glia name represents different kind of cells, ones from neural origin (astrocytes, radial glia, and oligodendroglia), and others from blood monocytes (microglia). During ontogeny, neurons appear first (rat fetal 15th) and after astrocytes (rat fetal 21th) indicating a bigger importance function in the CNS. Also, during the phylogeny, reptiles have less astrocytes compared to neurons and in humans, astrocytes are double in number than neurons. This data, perhaps means that astrocytes are more special cells and work in memory and learning? Astrocytes have an important role in different mechanisms protecting CNS across the production of antioxidant and anti-inflammatory proteins, cleaning extracellular medium and helping neurons to communicate with each other correctly. Inflammatory mediators production are important to prevent changes in normal physiology. But, excessive or continue production leads to many diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), Sclerosis Lateral Amyotrophic (ELA), Multiple sclerosis (MS), and neurodevelopment diseases, like Bipolar disorder, Schizophrenia, and Autism's symptomatology. Different drugs and thecniques can reverse oxidative stress and/or inflammatory excess. This review is intended to serve as an approximation to the field.

Keywords

Neurons; Astrocytes; Neurodegeneration; Neurodevelopmental diseases; Memory; Learning; Inflammation; Oxidative Stress; sleep disorders

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