Preprint Article Version 1 Preserved in Portico This version is not peer-reviewed

High CD169 Monocyte/Lymphocyte Ratio Reflects the Immunophenotyping Disruption and Predicts Oxygen Need in COVID-19 Patients

Version 1 : Received: 28 May 2021 / Approved: 31 May 2021 / Online: 31 May 2021 (10:28:24 CEST)

How to cite: Minutolo, A.; Petrone, V.; Fanelli, M.; Iannetta, M.; Giudice, M.; Ait Belkacem, I.; Zordan, M.; Vitale, P.; Rasi, G.; Paola, S.; Sarmati, L.; Andreoni, M.; Malergue, F.; Balestrieri, E.; Grelli, S.; Claudia, M. High CD169 Monocyte/Lymphocyte Ratio Reflects the Immunophenotyping Disruption and Predicts Oxygen Need in COVID-19 Patients. Preprints 2021, 2021050731 (doi: 10.20944/preprints202105.0731.v1). Minutolo, A.; Petrone, V.; Fanelli, M.; Iannetta, M.; Giudice, M.; Ait Belkacem, I.; Zordan, M.; Vitale, P.; Rasi, G.; Paola, S.; Sarmati, L.; Andreoni, M.; Malergue, F.; Balestrieri, E.; Grelli, S.; Claudia, M. High CD169 Monocyte/Lymphocyte Ratio Reflects the Immunophenotyping Disruption and Predicts Oxygen Need in COVID-19 Patients. Preprints 2021, 2021050731 (doi: 10.20944/preprints202105.0731.v1).

Abstract

Background: CD169 has been found overexpressed in the blood of COVID-19 patients and identified as a biomarker in the early disease. We have analysed CD169 in blood cells of COVID-19 patients to assess its role as predictive marker of the disease. Methods : The ratio of the CD169 Median median Fluorescence fluorescence Intensity intensity of CD169 between monocytes and lymphocytes (CD169 RMFI ) was analysed by flow cytometry in blood samples of COVID-19 patients (COV) and healthy donors (HD ) and correlated with immunophenotyping, inflammatory markers, cytokines mRNA expression, pulmonary involvement and disease progression. Results: CD169 RMFI increased in COV but not in HD. CD169 RMFI correlated with T-cell differentiation and exhaustion markers as well as with B cells maturation and differentiation. In vitro stimulation of PBMCs of HD with SARS-CoV-2 Spike spike protein induced CD169 RMFI together with IL-6 and IL-10 gene expression. Likewise, CD169 RMFI correlated with blood cytokine mRNA levels, inflammatory markers, and pneumonia severity in patients which that had not received any treatment at sampling. Notably, in untreated patients, CD169 RMFI reflected the respiratory outcome during hospitalization. Conclusion : Considering the immunological role of CD169 and its involvement during the infection and the progression of COVID-19, it could be considered as an early biomarker to evaluate disease progression and clinical outcome.

Subject Areas

cytokine storm; COVID-19; CD169; inflammation; respiratory outcome; T-cell exhaustion; COVID-19 therapy

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