Working Paper Review Version 1 This version is not peer-reviewed

The Microbiota-Gut-Brain Axis and Alzheimer Disease. From Dysbiosis to Neurodegeneration: Focus on the Central Nervous System Glial Cells

Version 1 : Received: 22 April 2021 / Approved: 26 April 2021 / Online: 26 April 2021 (13:22:47 CEST)

A peer-reviewed article of this Preprint also exists.

Giovannini, M.G.; Lana, D.; Traini, C.; Vannucchi, M.G. The Microbiota–Gut–Brain Axis and Alzheimer Disease. From Dysbiosis to Neurodegeneration: Focus on the Central Nervous System Glial Cells. J. Clin. Med. 2021, 10, 2358. Giovannini, M.G.; Lana, D.; Traini, C.; Vannucchi, M.G. The Microbiota–Gut–Brain Axis and Alzheimer Disease. From Dysbiosis to Neurodegeneration: Focus on the Central Nervous System Glial Cells. J. Clin. Med. 2021, 10, 2358.

Journal reference: J. Clin. Med. 2021, 10, 2358
DOI: 10.3390/jcm10112358

Abstract

Much evidence has accumulated over the past decade in favor of a significant association between dysbiosis, neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration. Presently, the pathogenetic mechanisms triggered by molecules produced by the altered microbiota, also responsible for the onset and evolution of Alzheimer Disease will be described. Our attention will be focused on the role of astrocytes and microglia. Numerous studies have progressively demonstrated how these glial cells are important to ensure an adequate environment for neuronal activity in healthy conditions. Furthermore, it is becoming evident how both cell types can mediate the onset of neuroinflammation and lead to neurodegeneration when subjected to pathological stimuli. Based on this information, the role of major microbiota products in shifting the activation profiles of astrocytes and microglia from a healthy to a diseased state will be discussed focussing on Alzheimer Disease pathogenesis.

Subject Areas

amyloid-β; endotoxin; short chain fatty acids; clasmatodendrosis; cytokines; neurovascular unit; vagus nerve; Toll-like Receptor 4

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