Preprint Review Version 1 Preserved in Portico This version is not peer-reviewed

Towards Clean and Safe Water: A Review on the Emerging Role of Imprinted Polymer-Based Electrochemical Sensors

Version 1 : Received: 22 April 2021 / Approved: 23 April 2021 / Online: 23 April 2021 (09:51:07 CEST)

How to cite: Zheng, X.; Khaoulani, S.; Ktari, N.; Lo, M.; Khalil, A.M.; ENNOURI, N.F.; Zerrouki, C.; Chehimi, M.M. Towards Clean and Safe Water: A Review on the Emerging Role of Imprinted Polymer-Based Electrochemical Sensors. Preprints 2021, 2021040623 (doi: 10.20944/preprints202104.0623.v1). Zheng, X.; Khaoulani, S.; Ktari, N.; Lo, M.; Khalil, A.M.; ENNOURI, N.F.; Zerrouki, C.; Chehimi, M.M. Towards Clean and Safe Water: A Review on the Emerging Role of Imprinted Polymer-Based Electrochemical Sensors. Preprints 2021, 2021040623 (doi: 10.20944/preprints202104.0623.v1).

Abstract

This mini-review critically summarizes the knowledge of imprinted polymer-based electrochemical sensors, for the detection of pesticides, metal ions and waterborne pathogenic bacteria, focusing on the period the last 5 years (citation of 78 papers published in 2017-2021, ie 63% of total citations). MIP-based electrochemical sensors exhibit low limit of detection, high selectivity, high sensitivity and low cost. Herein, we focused on the timely topics of water pollution by organics, inorganics and micro-organisms represented by pesticides, metal ions and bacteria, respectively. We put the emphasis on the design of imprinted polymers and their composites and coatings by radical polymerization, oxidative polymerization of conjugated monomers or sol-gel chemistry. Whilst most imprinted polymers are used in conjunction with differential pulse or square wave voltammetry for sensing organics and metal ions, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) appears as the chief technique for detecting bacteria. This successful combination of EIS and imprinting technology should be harnessed in the coming years in the case of bacteria. Interestingly, bacteria are not always probed by bacteria-imprinted polymers; we report here their detection by monitoring specific (macro)molecules that reflect bacterial activity, for example quorum sensing signaling molecules or flagella proteins. If much has been developed in the past decade with glassy carbon or gold electrodes, it is clear that carbon paste electrodes of imprinted polymers are more and more investigated due to their versatility. Shortlisted case studies were critically reviewed and discussed; clearly a plethora of tricky strategies of designing selective electrochemical sensors are offered to “Imprinters”. We anticipate this review will be of interest to experts and new comers in the field who are paying time and effort combining electrochemical sensors with MIP technology.

Subject Areas

imprinted polymers; electrochemical sensors; pesticides; metal ions; bacteria

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