Knoll, K.E.; Lindeque, Z.; Adeniji, A.A.; Oosthuizen, C.B.; Lall, N.; Loots, D.T. Elucidating the Antimycobacterial Mechanism of Action of Ciprofloxacin Using Metabolomics. Microorganisms2021, 9, 1158.
Knoll, K.E.; Lindeque, Z.; Adeniji, A.A.; Oosthuizen, C.B.; Lall, N.; Loots, D.T. Elucidating the Antimycobacterial Mechanism of Action of Ciprofloxacin Using Metabolomics. Microorganisms 2021, 9, 1158.
In the interest of developing more effective and safer anti-Tuberculosis treatment, we aimed for a better understanding of the antimycobacterial action of ciprofloxacin against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). We used GCxGC-TOF-MS and well described metabolomics statistical approaches, to investigate and compare the metabolic profiles of Mtb in the presence and absence of the drug. The metabolites that best describe the differences between the compared groups were identified as markers characterizing the changes induced by ciprofloxacin. Malic acid was ranked as the most significantly altered metabolite marker induced by ciprofloxacin, indicative of an inhibition of the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) and glyoxylate cycle of Mtb. The altered fatty acid, myo-inositol and triacylglycerol metabolism seen in this group, supports the previous observations of ciprofloxacin action on the Mtb cell wall. Furthermore, the altered pentose phosphate intermediates, glycerol metabolism markers, glucose accumulation, and the reduction in the glucogenic amino acids specifically, indicates a flux towards DNA (as well as cell wall) repair, also supporting previous findings of DNA damage caused by ciprofloxacin. This study further provides insights useful for designing network whole-system strategies for the identification of possible modes of actions of various drugs and possibly adaptations by Mtb resulting in resistance.
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