Badaeva, E.D.; Chikida, N.N.; Fisenko, A.N.; Surzhikov, S.A.; Belousova, M.K.; Özkan, H.; Dragovich, A.Y.; Kochieva, E.Z. Chromosome and Molecular Analyses Reveal Significant Karyotype Diversity and Provide New Evidence on the Origin of Aegilops columnaris. Plants2021, 10, 956.
Badaeva, E.D.; Chikida, N.N.; Fisenko, A.N.; Surzhikov, S.A.; Belousova, M.K.; Özkan, H.; Dragovich, A.Y.; Kochieva, E.Z. Chromosome and Molecular Analyses Reveal Significant Karyotype Diversity and Provide New Evidence on the Origin of Aegilops columnaris. Plants 2021, 10, 956.
Aegilops columnaris Zhuk. is tetraploid grass species (2n=4x=28, UcUcXcXc) closely related to Ae. neglecta and growing in Western Asia and a western part of the Fertile Crescent. Genetic diversity of Ae. columnaris was assessed using C-banding, FISH, nuclear and chloroplast (cp)DNA analyses, and gliadin electrophoresis. Cytogenetically Ae. columnaris was subdivided into two groups, C-I and C-II, showing different karyotype structure, C-banding and FISH patterns. Group C-I was more similar to Ae. neglecta. All types of markers revealed significant heterogeneity of the C-II group, although group C-I was also polymorphic. Two chromosomal groups were consistent with plastogroups identified in a current study based on sequencing of three chloroplast intergenic spacer regions. The similarity of group C-I of Ae. columnaris with Ae. neglecta and their distinctness from C-II indicate that divergence of the C-I group was associated with minor genome modifications. Group C-II could emerge from C-I relatively recently, probably due to introgression from another Aegilops species followed by a reorganization of the parental genomes. Most C-II accessions were collected from the very narrow geographic region, and they might originate from a common ancestor. We suggest that the C-II group is at the initial stage of species divergence and undergoing an extensive speciation process.
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