Preprint Article Version 1 Preserved in Portico This version is not peer-reviewed

The Entropy Production of Galaxies

Version 1 : Received: 1 April 2021 / Approved: 2 April 2021 / Online: 2 April 2021 (14:34:24 CEST)

A peer-reviewed article of this Preprint also exists.

DOI: 10.3390/universe7090325


Double-spiral galaxies are common in the Universe. It is known that the logarithmic double spiral is a Maximum Entropy geometry and represents spiral galaxies well. It is also known that the virial mass of such a galaxy can be approximately determined from the entropy of its central supermassive black hole. But over time the black hole must accrete mass, and therefore the overall galactic entropy must increase. From the associated entropic Euler-Lagrange equation (forming the basis of the Principle of Least Exertion, and also enabling the application of Nöther’s theorem) we show that the galactic entropy production is a conserved quantity, and we derive an appropriate expression for the relativistic entropic Hamiltonian of an idealised spiral galaxy. We generalise Onsager’s celebrated expression for entropy production and demonstrate that galactic entropy production has two parts, one many orders of magnitude larger than the other, and where the smaller is comparable to the Hawking radiation of the central supermassive black hole. We conclude that galaxies cannot be isolated, since even idealised spiral galaxies have non-zero entropy production.


Quantitative Geometrical Thermodynamics; info-entropy; galactic evolution; Maximum Entropy Production Principle; accretion


PHYSICAL SCIENCES, General & Theoretical Physics

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