: Received: 22 March 2021 / Approved: 23 March 2021 / Online: 23 March 2021 (13:45:24 CET)
: Received: 25 March 2021 / Approved: 26 March 2021 / Online: 26 March 2021 (09:30:21 CET)
: Received: 11 April 2021 / Approved: 12 April 2021 / Online: 12 April 2021 (13:06:01 CEST)
Napoleão, A.; Fernandes, L.; Miranda, C.; Marum, A.P. Effects of Calorie Restriction on Health Span and Insulin Resistance: Classic Calorie Restriction Diet vs. Ketosis-Inducing Diet. Nutrients2021, 13, 1302.
Napoleão, A.; Fernandes, L.; Miranda, C.; Marum, A.P. Effects of Calorie Restriction on Health Span and Insulin Resistance: Classic Calorie Restriction Diet vs. Ketosis-Inducing Diet. Nutrients 2021, 13, 1302.
As Chronic Non-Communicable Diseases (CNCD) increase, preventive approaches become more crucial. In this review, Calorie Restriction (CR) effects on human beings were evaluated, comparing benefits and risks of different CR diets: classic CR vs ketosis-inducing diets, including Intermittent Fasting (IF), Classic Ketogenic Diet (CKD), Fasting Mimicking Diet (FMD), Very-Low-Calorie Ketogenic Diet (VLCKD) and Spanish Ketogenic Mediterranean Diet (SKMD). Special emphasis on Insulin Resistance (IR) was placed, as it mediates Metabolic Syndrome (MS), a risk factor for CNCD, and predicts MS diagnosis. CR is the most robust intervention known to increase lifespan and health span, with high evidence and known biochemical mechanisms. CR improves cardiometabolic risk parameters, boosts exercise insulin sensitivity response, and there may be benefits of implementing moderate CR on healthy young and middle-aged individuals. However, there is insufficient evidence to support long-term CR. CKD is effective for weight and MS management, and may have additional benefits such as prevention of muscle loss and appetite control. SKMD has extreme significance benefits for all the metabolic parameters studied. Studies show inconsistent benefits of IF compared to classic CR. More studies are required to study biochemical parameters, reinforce evidence, identify risks, and seek effective and safe nutritional CR approaches.
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