Preprint Review Version 1 Preserved in Portico This version is not peer-reviewed

Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH) Pollution and its Associated Human Health Risks in the Niger Delta Region of Nigeria: A Systematic Review

Version 1 : Received: 7 March 2021 / Approved: 9 March 2021 / Online: 9 March 2021 (07:23:38 CET)

How to cite: Ofori, S.A.; Cobbina, S.J.; Imoro, A.Z.; Doke, D.A.; Gaiser, T. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH) Pollution and its Associated Human Health Risks in the Niger Delta Region of Nigeria: A Systematic Review. Preprints 2021, 2021030240 (doi: 10.20944/preprints202103.0240.v1). Ofori, S.A.; Cobbina, S.J.; Imoro, A.Z.; Doke, D.A.; Gaiser, T. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH) Pollution and its Associated Human Health Risks in the Niger Delta Region of Nigeria: A Systematic Review. Preprints 2021, 2021030240 (doi: 10.20944/preprints202103.0240.v1).

Abstract

The frequent incidents of oil spills and other forms of pollution arising from crude oil exploration and exploitation (OEE) in the Niger Delta have caused several investigations on Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) pollution. This study aimed at developing a comprehensive report on PAH pollution and its human health risks recorded in the Niger Delta. Studies were extracted from Google Scholar, PubMed, and ResearchGate using a defined selection criterion. The quality of each study was assessed using the Newcastle – Ottawa Scale. Thirty-eight studies were selected with the majority reporting on PAH pollution in aquatic environments. Across all the selected studies, the total number of PAHs recorded ranged from 7 to 28 PAH congeners. Also, PAH potential sources reported in the studies were of pyrogenic and petrogenic sources. PAH concentrations recorded in water, sediment, aquatic organisms (fish and shrimp), soil, dust, and crop samples ranged from below detection limit (BDL) to 450 ± 117.9 mg/L, BDL to 1821.5 mg/kg, 0.005 to 1.098 mg/kg, ND to 4154 ± 3461 mg/kg, 165.1 to 1012 mg/kg, and 0.020 to 3.37 mg/kg, respectively. Majority of the selected studies reported PAH levels which were higher than the permissible limits. Incremental Lifetime Cancer Risk (ILCR) assessment of PAHs in samples ranged from low to high via ingestion and dermal routes of exposure to humans. It is recommended that the Federal Government of Nigeria promotes environmentally friendly operations of OEE. Future studies should focus on PAH pollution in farmlands, ambient air and the associated human and ecological health risks.

Keywords

Oil exploration and exploitation, Gas flaring, Environmental pollution, PAH sources, Incremental lifetime cancer risk

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