Preprint Review Version 1 Preserved in Portico This version is not peer-reviewed

Fate of β-Carotene within Loaded Delivery Systems in Food: State of Knowledge

Version 1 : Received: 6 February 2021 / Approved: 8 February 2021 / Online: 8 February 2021 (12:31:57 CET)

How to cite: Maurya, V.; Shakya, A.; Aggarwal, M.; Gothandam, K.; Bohn, T.; Pareek, S. Fate of β-Carotene within Loaded Delivery Systems in Food: State of Knowledge. Preprints 2021, 2021020205 (doi: 10.20944/preprints202102.0205.v1). Maurya, V.; Shakya, A.; Aggarwal, M.; Gothandam, K.; Bohn, T.; Pareek, S. Fate of β-Carotene within Loaded Delivery Systems in Food: State of Knowledge. Preprints 2021, 2021020205 (doi: 10.20944/preprints202102.0205.v1).

Abstract

Accruing evidence on the influence of β-carotene regarding the prevention of several chronic diseases - in addition to its well-acknowledged role in vision has been a strong driver for developing alternative delivery systems. Though oral delivery is accepted as the most fitting, mild and safe path for delivering bioactive agents, β-carotene delivery via food items poses challenges due to its lipophilic nature, poor water-solubility, high chemical/photochemical instability and poor oral bioavailability. Nanotechnology has opened new windows for delivering bioactive agents. Their physiochemical characteristics, i.e. small size, high surface area, unique composition, biocompatibility and biodegradability make these nanomaterials an attractive tool for β-carotene delivery. Delivering β-carotene through nanoparticles does not only improve its bioavailability/bioaccumulation in target tissues, but also lessens its sensitivity against environmental factors during processing. Regardless of these benefits, nanocarriers inherit some limitations, such as variations in sensory quality, modification of the food matrix, increasing costs, as well as limited consumer acceptance and regulatory challenges. This research area has been rapidly evolved, with a plethora of innovative nano-engineered materials, including micelles, nano/microemulsion, liposomes, niosomes, solid-lipid nanoparticles and nanostructured lipid carriers. These nano-delivery systems make conventional delivery systems appear archaic and promise better solubilization, protection during processing, improved shelf-life, higher bioavailability as well as controlled and targeted release. This review provides information on the state of knowledge on β-carotene nano-delivery systems adopted for developing functional foods: depicting their classification, composition, preparation methods, challenges, release-and absorption of β-carotene in the GIT and possible risks and future prospects.

Subject Areas

Beta-carotene; bioavailability; delivery system; encapsulation; engineered nanomaterial; SLNs; NLCs

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