Preprint Article Version 1 Preserved in Portico This version is not peer-reviewed

# Laws of Gravity and Electrostatics Reduce Elementary Particles to Only Two: Positron and Negatron

Version 1 : Received: 3 February 2021 / Approved: 5 February 2021 / Online: 5 February 2021 (14:10:06 CET)

How to cite: Kirimi, M. Laws of Gravity and Electrostatics Reduce Elementary Particles to Only Two: Positron and Negatron. Preprints 2021, 2021020166. https://doi.org/10.20944/preprints202102.0166.v1 Kirimi, M. Laws of Gravity and Electrostatics Reduce Elementary Particles to Only Two: Positron and Negatron. Preprints 2021, 2021020166. https://doi.org/10.20944/preprints202102.0166.v1

## Abstract

I demonstrate that the macrocosmic gravitational interaction between two masses and the microcosmic electrostatic interaction between two charges unify in simple concepts and mathematical laws when electric charge and ordinary mass are interpreted in reciprocal terms. No previous research has ever attempted to unify charge and mass. The difficulty has been lack of an intelligible definition of charge. A three-point paradigm shift solves the problem, giving convincing evidence – for the first time – that positron and negatron are the ultimate elementary particles. That is, matter is pure positive and negative grains of electricity. Paradigm shift #1: Electron is a moving charge; a charge is static electron – ‘one entity two identities’. This implies that ordinary matter contains equal numbers of positive and negative electrons – observed in motion as ‘electrons’ and at rest as ‘charges’. In motion, a positron-negatron pair obeys the laws of electrodynamics and annihilates; at rest, the pair obeys the laws of electrostatics and neutralizes. Paradigm shift #2: Electron mass and electrostatic field are either positive or negative. Opposite masses and fields, rather than indefinable ‘charge’, make opposite electrons physically different. Paradigm shift #3: Electric charge and ordinary mass interconvert. Positive charge (e+) and negative charge (e-) neutralize to neutral charge (2e0), which is nature’s quantum of ordinary mass. Conversely, a quantum of ordinary mass splits to opposite charges e.g. in frictional electrification. The insights systematize the search, identification and classification of ‘elementary particles’, ending decades of confusion in the ‘elementary particle zoo’. They identify a new, stable subatomic particle – a third nucleon.

## Keywords

Electron; electrostatics; elementary particles; fields; gravity; unification

## Subject

Physical Sciences, Particle and Field Physics

Comment 1
Commenter: FRANKLIN HU
The commenter has declared there is no conflict of interests.
Comment: Your solution really still provides no actual mechanism for why a negatron should attract a positron, other than saying so.
" Firm theoretical and experimental proof has been presented to show that electron mass and electrostatic fields are either positive or negative. "
You are just repeating Coulomb's law, not providing an explanation for why they are positive or negative.

My preference is to justify a low pressure zone between a positron and electron which is an example of how to physically justify why a positron should spontaneously be pushed towards an electron. The physical difference is a change in resonance phase between positive and negative charges.
http://franklinhu.com/HowElectrostaticFieldWorks.pdf
But I think there is much to agree upon.

I make no particular claim what an electron actually is. It is not the 'wave' that is emitted, but it is a distinct physical quantity.

The key that I add with my theory is to precisely describe what the electrostatic field is (a wave emitted by an electron) and what is the difference between positive and negative charges (just a change in phase).

Yes, the world can be very simple if we only consider positrons and electron as composing the world

http://franklinhu.com/QuarksDoNotExist.pdf
You might be interested in my other papers as well:
http://franklinhu.com/papers.html
All of this points to a theory similar to what you are proposing where we only have to consider positrons and electrons making up everything.
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Response 1 to Comment 1
Commenter:
The commenter has declared there is no conflict of interests.
Comment: Franklin, I grasp your definition of charge as a 'wave field' around an electron. That doesn’t really describe a charge. Your ‘wave field’ may describe electrostatic field - for that is the mechanical reality around an electron. Millikan-Harvey experiment showed beyond doubts that charge is a physical entity that exists in natural quanta. Equally, Faraday established that in chemical processes charges occurs in natural (countable) numbers. But J.J. Thomson (1897) showed that electron is an equally concrete grain of matter. For over a century, physicist have not recognized the almost obvious connection between ‘elementary charge’ and ‘electron’.

First, think in terms of a natural grain of electricity. In motion, the grain is observed as an electron (E); at rest as a charge (e) - one entity two identities. Millikan-Harvey experiment describe the grain at rest; Thomson’s experiment describes it in motion. In motion (as electrons) grains of electricity obey the laws of electrodynamics, including electron pair production/annihilation. At rest (as charges), grains of electricity obey the laws of electrostatics, including what I have named ‘charge pair production’ and ‘charge pair neutralization’. The critical implication is that ordinary matter has equal numbers of positive and negative grains of electricity. For example, the positive charge associated with proton is a static positive electron – ejected as positron in positive beta decay.

Second, think that a grain of electricity is not an everyday particle. The grain’s mass (electron mass) and field (electrostatic field) are either positive or negative. Dirac’s equation shows that electron mass is either positive or negative: m_e=±√((E^2-〖p^2 c〗^2)/c^4 ). Equally, 'test charge experiments' show that electrostatics field is either positive or negative, i.e. the field lines either face radially outward or inward. Hence, a positive grain of electricity comprises 'positive electron mass' and 'positive electrostatic field.' Conversely, a negative grain of electricity comprises 'negative electron mass' and 'negative electrostatic field'. We recognize the field and mass are real components of a particle and thus realize Maxwell's vision of 'field and substance'.

Thirdly, think that opposite charges convert (neutralize) to a neutral charge, which is nature’s quantum of ordinary mass: e˄+ + e˄- <=> 2e˄0. In reverse (charge pair production), the quantum of ordinary mass splits into opposite charges; e.g. when glass rod is rubbed with fur. Thus we have unified elementary charge and electron as well as charge and ordinary mass. As a consequence, the laws of gravity (Newton's) and electrostatics (Coulomb's) unify as: 8G/(m_p m_e )=K/e^2 .