Preprint Review Version 1 Preserved in Portico This version is not peer-reviewed

CTLA-4 in Regulatory T Cells for Cancer Immunotherapy

Version 1 : Received: 5 February 2021 / Approved: 5 February 2021 / Online: 5 February 2021 (09:35:47 CET)

A peer-reviewed article of this Preprint also exists.

Sobhani, N.; Tardiel-Cyril, D.R.; Davtyan, A.; Generali, D.; Roudi, R.; Li, Y. CTLA-4 in Regulatory T Cells for Cancer Immunotherapy. Cancers 2021, 13, 1440. Sobhani, N.; Tardiel-Cyril, D.R.; Davtyan, A.; Generali, D.; Roudi, R.; Li, Y. CTLA-4 in Regulatory T Cells for Cancer Immunotherapy. Cancers 2021, 13, 1440.

Journal reference: Cancers 2021, 13, 1440
DOI: 10.3390/cancers13061440

Abstract

Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) have obtained durable responses in many cancers, making it possible to foresee their potential in improving the health of cancer patients. However, immunotherapies are limited at the moment to a minority of patients and there is a need for a better understanding of the basic molecular mechanisms and functions of pivotal immune regulatory molecules. Immune checkpoint cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein 4 (CTLA-4) and regulatory T (Treg) cells play pivotal roles in hindering the anticancer immunity. Treg cells suppress antigen-presenting cells (APCs) by depleting immune stimulating cytokines, producing immunosuppressive cytokines and constitutively expressing CTLA-4. CTLA-4 molecules bind with higher affinity to CD80 and CD86 than CD28 and act as competitive inhibitors of CD28 in APCs. The purpose of this review is to summarize state-of-the-art understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlining CTLA-4 immune regulation and the correlation of ICI response with CTLA-4 expression in Treg cells from preclinical and clinical studies for possibly improving CTLA-4-based immunotherapies, while highlighting the knowledge gap.

Keywords

CTLA-4; Treg cells: Immune checkpoint inhibitors; CD28; Antigen Presenting Cells

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