Preprint Article Version 1 Preserved in Portico This version is not peer-reviewed

Blood Lead Level in a Paediatric Population of South-Eastern Spain: A Cross-Sectional Study

Version 1 : Received: 17 January 2021 / Approved: 18 January 2021 / Online: 18 January 2021 (16:12:24 CET)

A peer-reviewed article of this Preprint also exists.

Ruiz-Tudela, L.; Vázquez-López, M.A.; García-Escobar, I.; Cabrera-Sevilla, J.E.; Gómez-Bueno, S.; Martín-Gonzalez, M.; Muñoz-Vico, F.J. Blood Lead Level in a Paediatric Population of South-Eastern Spain and Associated Risk Factors. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18, 1825. Ruiz-Tudela, L.; Vázquez-López, M.A.; García-Escobar, I.; Cabrera-Sevilla, J.E.; Gómez-Bueno, S.; Martín-Gonzalez, M.; Muñoz-Vico, F.J. Blood Lead Level in a Paediatric Population of South-Eastern Spain and Associated Risk Factors. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18, 1825.

Journal reference: Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18, 1825
DOI: 10.3390/ijerph18041825

Abstract

Objective: To determine blood lead levels (BLL) in a healthy paediatric population and to analyse related sociodemographic, dietary and haematological factors. Methods: A cross-sectional study was made of 1,427 healthy subjects aged 1-16 years from the city of Almería (south-eastern Spain). BLL, iron parameters and erythropoietin were determined, and sociodemographic and dietary data obtained. The study data were analysed by multiple logistic regression. Results: The mean BLL was 1.98±1.1 µg/dl (95% CI:1.91–2.04). For 5.7% of the population, mean BLL was 2-5 µg/dl, for 2.1% it was >5 µg/dl and for 0.15% it was >10 µg/dl. Multivariate analysis showed that immigrant origin (OR:11.9; p<0.0001), low level of parental education (OR:4.6; p<0.02) and low dietary iron bioavailability (OR: 3.2; p<0.02) were all risk factors for toxic BLL. Subjects with toxic and non-toxic BLL presented similar iron and erythropoiesis-related parameters, except erythrocyte protoporphyrin, which was significantly higher in the BLL >5 µg/dl group. Conclusions: BLL and the prevalence of toxic BLL in healthy subjects aged 1-16 years living in south-eastern Spain are low and similar to those found in other developed countries. The factors associated with toxic BLL are immigrant origin, low level of parental education and dietary iron deficiency. The toxicity of BLL was not related to changes in the analytical parameters studied.

Subject Areas

Lead; Lead poisoning; paediatrics population,; sociodemografic factor,; ron deficincy; erythropoyesis; Spain

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